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Journal Article

Decoupled 3D Moment Control for Vehicle Motion Using In-Wheel Motors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0679
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.
Technical Paper

Development of New AMT Shift Speed Control System for Lexus LFA

2011-10-06
2011-28-0103
The development of the Lexus LFA focused on the pursuit of a passionate driving experience suitable for a super sports car. The shift speed control system in the LFA is an automated manual transmission (AMT) that uses an electrohydraulic actuator. The excellent shifting performance of the AMT was achieved by developing control technology that performs smooth, quick, and highly responsive shifting in accordance with the driving conditions. This was the result of repeated evaluations in both normal driving and on circuits featuring many acceleration, deceleration, and high-speed driving sectors. This paper describes the AMT shift speed control system and technology.
Technical Paper

Progress and Challenges in Toyota's Fuel Cell Vehicle Development

2011-10-06
2011-28-0061
This paper describes an outline of the Toyota FCHV-adv, a fuel cell vehicle with a practical cruising range of more than 500 km. The cold startability of the FCHV-adv was improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv is capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, Toyota intends to improve durability and reduce costs and is continuing to cooperate with governments and energy businesses to establish infrastructure and make the necessary modifications to laws and regulations.
Journal Article

Development of an On-Board PM Sensor for the OBD System Based on an Electrochemical Polarization

2011-08-30
2011-01-2059
An on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor, consisting of a gas-permeable electrochemical cell with a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte, was developed to assist the on-board diagnostics (OBD) system of a vehicle. Exhaust is pumped from the anode side to the cathode side and PM deposited on the anode is instantly oxidized by the catalytic effects of the metal component of the electrode at temperatures higher than 350°C. The PM oxidation reaction occurs at the three-phase boundary between the anode, electrolyte and gas phase, and causes a slight change in the bulk average oxygen concentration, which produces electrochemical polarization by the difference in oxygen partial pressures between the anode and cathode. The developed PM sensor has a detection limit of 2 mg/m₃, at which level will enable PM detection in the OBD system according to the EURO VI regulation.
Journal Article

Development of Di-Air - A New Diesel deNOx System by Adsorbed Intermediate Reductants

2011-08-30
2011-01-2089
An unprecedented phenomenon that achieves high NOx conversion was found over an NSR catalyst. This phenomenon occurs when continuous short cycle injections of hydrocarbons (HCs) are supplied at a predetermined concentration in lean conditions. Furthermore, this phenomenon has a wider range of applicability for different catalyst temperatures (up to 800 degrees Celsius) and SVs, and for extending thermal and sulfur durability than a conventional NOx storage and reduction system. This paper analyzes the reaction mechanism and concludes it to be highly active HC-deNOx by intermediates generated from adsorbed NOx over the base catalysts and HCs partially oxidized by oscillated HC injection. Subsequently, a high performance deNOx system named Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) was demonstrated that applies this concept to high speed driving cycles.
Journal Article

Study of Diesel Engine System for Hybrid Vehicles

2011-08-30
2011-01-2021
In this study, we combined a diesel engine with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). Utilizing the functions of the THS, reducing engine friction, lowering the compression ratio, and adopting a low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system (LPL-EGR) were examined to achieve both low fuel consumption and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over a wide operating range. After applying this system to a test vehicle it was verified that the fuel economy greatly surpassed that of a conventional diesel engine vehicle and that NOx emissions could be reduced below the value specified in the Euro 6 regulations without DeNOx catalysts.
Journal Article

A New Generation of Optically Accessible Single-Cylinder Engines for High-speed and High-load Combustion Analysis

2011-08-30
2011-01-2050
Over the last few decades, in-cylinder visualization using optically accessible engines has been an important tool in the detailed analysis of the in-cylinder phenomena of internal combustion engines. However, most current optically accessible engines are recognized as being limited in terms of their speed and load, because of the fragility of certain components such as the elongated pistons and transparent windows. To overcome these speed and load limits, we developed a new generation of optically accessible engines which extends the operating range up to speeds of 6000 rpm for the SI engine version, and up to in-cylinder pressures of 20 MPa for the CI engine version. The main reason for the speed limitation is the vibration caused by the inertia force arising from the heavy elongated piston, which increases with the square of the engine speed.
Journal Article

Effects of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) as Renewable Diesel Fuel on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1954
The effects of Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) on combustion and emission characteristics in a diesel engine were investigated by using spray analyzer, engine dynamometer and vehicle tests. Spray analysis showed that spray characteristics was virtually the same for HVO and diesel. From the results of the engine dynamometer and the vehicle tests, it was found that the high cetane number and the zero aromatics of HVO could reduce in HC and PM emissions. Moreover, as a result of optimized engine calcification, HVO is capable of improving partial fuel consumption and full-load torque. These results indicate that HVO has beneficial fuel characteristics for diesel engine.
Journal Article

Injection Nozzle Coking Mechanism in Common-rail Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1818
The hole diameter of injection nozzles in diesel engines has become smaller and the nozzle coking could potentially cause injection characteristics and emissions to deteriorate. In this research, engine tests with zinc-added fuels, deposit analyses, laboratory tests and numerical calculations were carried out to clarify the deposit formation mechanisms. In the initial phase of deposit formation, lower zinc carboxylate formed close to the nozzle hole outlet by reactions between zinc in the fuel and lower carboxylic acid in the combustion gas. In the subsequent growth phase, the main component changed to zinc carbonate close to nozzle hole inlet by reactions with CO₂ in the combustion gas. Metal components and combustion gases are essential elements in the composition of these deposits. One way of removing these deposits is to utilize cavitations inside the nozzle holes.
Journal Article

Analysis of Piston Friction - Effects of Cylinder Bore Temperature Distribution and Oil Temperature

2011-08-30
2011-01-1746
Hybrid vehicles (HVs) are becoming more widely used. Since HVs supplement engine drive with motor power, the lubricant oil temperature remains at a lower level than in a conventional gasoline vehicle. This study analyzed the effect of cylinder bore temperature and lubricant oil temperature on engine friction. The results showed that, although the lubricant oil temperature was not relevant, the bore temperature had significant effect on piston friction. It was found that raising the temperature of the middle section of the cylinder bore was the most effective way of reducing piston friction.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of CO Formation in Diesel Combustion - The use of intake air throttling to create reducing atmospheres for NSR catalysts -

2011-08-30
2011-01-1841
The efficiency of the NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) catalysts used in the aftertreatment of diesel engine exhaust gases can potentially be increased by using reactive reductants such as CO and H₂ that are formed during in-cylinder combustion. In this study, a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with complex chemical analysis was used to study combustion with various fuel after-injection patterns. The results obtained will be useful in designing fuel injection strategies for the efficient formation of CO.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Compression Ratio SI Engine Equipped with a Variable Piston Crank Mechanism for Knocking Mitigation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1874
To avoid knocking phenomena, a special crank mechanism for gasoline engine that allowed the piston to move rapidly near TDC (Top Dead Center) was developed and experimentally demonstrated in the previous study. As a result, knocking was successfully mitigated and indicated thermal efficiency was improved [1],[2],[3],[4]. However, performance of the proposed system was evaluated at only limited operating conditions. In the present study, to investigate the effect of piston movement near TDC on combustion characteristics and indicated thermal efficiency and to clarify the knock mitigation mechanism of the proposed method, experimental studies were carried out using a single cylinder engine with a compression ratio of 13.7 at various engine speeds and loads. The special crank mechanism, which allows piston to move rapidly near TDC developed in the previous study, was applied to the test engine with some modification of tooling accuracy.
Technical Paper

Anti- Combustion Deposit Fuel Development for 2009 Toyota Formula One Racing Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1983
Toyota participated in Formula One1 (F1) Racing from 2002 to 2009. As a result of the downturn in the world economy, various engine developments within F1 were restricted in order to reduce the cost of competing in F1. The limit on the maximum number of engines allowed has decreased year by year. Toyota focused on the engine performance deterioration due to the combustion chamber deposits. In 2009, Toyota was successful in reducing around 40% of the deterioration by making combustion chamber cleaner in cooperation with ExxonMobil. This contributed to good result of 2009 F1 season for Toyota, including two second place finishes.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of CNG Engines by Hydrogen Addition

2011-08-30
2011-01-1996
This research aimed to identify how combustion characteristics are affected by the addition of hydrogen to methane, which is the main components of natural gas, and to study a combustion method that takes advantage of the properties of the blended fuel. It was found that adding hydrogen did not achieve a thermal efficiency improvement effect under stoichiometric conditions because cooling loss increased. The same result was obtained under EGR stoichiometric conditions. In contrast, under lean burn conditions, higher thermal efficiency and lower NOx than with methane combustion was achieved by utilizing the wide flammability range of hydrogen to expand the lean limit. Although NOx can be decreased easily by the addition of large quantities of hydrogen, the substantially lower energy density of the fuel causes a substantial reduction in cruising range. Consequently, this research improved the combustion of a CNG engine by increasing the tumble ratio to 1.8.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Engine Components for Model-Based Control (Second Report): Prediction of Combustion with High Speed Calculation Diesel Combustion Model

2011-08-30
2011-01-2044
This paper describes the development of a High Speed Calculation Diesel Combustion Model that predicts combustion-related behaviors of diesel engines from passenger cars. Its output is dependent on the engine's operating parameters and on input from on-board pressure and temperature sensors. The model was found to be capable of predicting the engine's in-cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and NOx emissions with a high degree of accuracy under a wide range of operating conditions at a reasonable computational cost. The construction of this model represents an important preliminary step towards the development of an integrated Model Based Control system for controlling combustion in diesel engines used in passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Development of In-cylinder Mixture and Flame Propagation Distribution Measurement Device with Spark Plug Type Sensor

2011-08-30
2011-01-2045
A new method to measure in-cylinder flame propagation and mixture distribution has been developed. The distribution is derived from analyzing the temporal history of flame spectra of CH* and C2*, which are detected by a spark plug type sensor with multi-optical fibers. The validity of this method was confirmed by verifying that the measurement results corresponded with the results of high speed flame visualization and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement. This method was also applied to analysis of cyclic combustion fluctuation on start-up in a direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine, and its applicability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

New TOYOTA 4.8L V10 Petrol High Performance Engine for Lexus LFA

2011-08-30
2011-01-2024
Achieving the speed and performance of a true supercar was merely the starting point of this development. In addition, the development also focused on achieving emotive performance attributes to enhance driver appeal. For this the engine was developed to assist a vehicle handling provides unsurpassed response, the creating a feeling of infinite acceleration potential, response is instantaneous and based on close understanding of driver's reactions and Awe inspiring sound is providing. It meets the latest emission standard Euro V and achieves good fuel consumption with a wide range stoechiometric air fuel ratio, till speeds up to 240km/h.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

2011-08-30
2011-01-2062
In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Engine Components for Model-Based Control (First Report): The construction and validation of a model of the Air Intake System

2011-08-30
2011-01-2066
Model based control design is an important method for optimizing engine operating conditions so as to simultaneously improve engines' thermal efficiency and emission profiles. Modeling of intake system that includes an intake throttle valve, an EGR valve and a variable geometry turbocharger was constructed based on conservation laws combined with maps. Calculated results were examined the predictive accuracy of fresh charge mass flow, EGR rate and boost pressure.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

2011-05-17
2011-39-7204
In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
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