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Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Journal Article

Physical Modeling of Shock Absorber Using Large Deflection Theory

In this paper, a shock absorber physical model is developed. Firstly, a rebound valve model which is based on its structure parameters is built through using the large deflection theory. The von Karman equations are introduced to discover the physical relationships between the load and the deflection of valve discs. An analytical solution of the von Karman equations is then deducted via perturbation method. Secondly, the flow equations and the pressure equations of the shock absorber operating are investigated. The relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop of rebound valve is analyzed based on the analytical solution of valve discs deflection. Thirdly, an inter-iterative process of flow rate and pressure drop is employed in order to adequately consider the influence of fluid flow on damping force. Finally, the physical model is validated by comparing the experimental data with the simulation output.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics and Control Methods for Drive-by-Wire Electric Vehicle

A full drive-by-wire electric vehicle, named Urban Future Electric Vehicle (UFEV) is developed, where the four wheels' traction and braking torques, four wheels' steering angles, and four active suspensions (in the future) are controlled independently. It is an ideal platform to realize the optimal vehicle dynamics, the marginal-stability and the energy-efficient control, it is also a platform for studying the advanced chassis control methods and their applications. A centralized control system of hierarchical structure for UFEV is proposed, which consist of Sensor Layer, Identification and Estimation Layer, Objective Control Layer, Forces and Motion Distribution Layer, Executive Layer. In the Identification and Estimation Layer, identification model is established by utilizing neural network algorithms to identify the driver characteristics. Vehicle state estimation and road identification of UFEV based on EKF and Fuzzy Logic Control methods is also conducted in this layer.
Technical Paper

Mode Transition Dynamic Control for Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System

Coordinated control of mode transition is an important part of the multi-mode hybrid vehicles' control strategy, combined with a vehicle torque distribution strategy to realize an optimal working condition of the power sources, as well as achieve smooth mode switching. This paper builds hybrid electric vehicle driveline dynamics model and depth analyzes drive mode transition process, coordinated control methods were provided to solve three types of mode switching, neural network algorithm was provided to estimate the engine torque. The results show that coordinated control can reduce torque fluctuations and decrease jerk during the transition of different modes to improve the vehicle drivability.
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy and HIL Validation of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicle

This article focuses on the research of control algorithm and control logic for the pneumatic EBS (Electronic Braking System) of commercial vehicle. An overall technical program was proposed which develops conventional braking and emergency braking for commercial vehicle EBS. According to the overall scheme, the methods of vehicle state estimation and driver's braking intention were determined, modeling and simulation for key components of commercial vehicle EBS were then carried out. This lead to the development of deceleration control, braking force distribution, brake assist and ABS control. Simulation models for key components of EBS and control strategy were validated through hardware-in-the-loop simulation tests. Simulation results show that the control strategy improves vehicle braking stability and vehicle active safety.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Source Identification of Bus Floor's Vibration

To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear.
Technical Paper

Study on Objective Evaluation Index System of On-Center Handling for Passenger Car

On-center handling has drawn lots of attention from consumers and car manufactures for its extraordinarily large effect on vehicle security at high speed. So far, there are a large number of objective evaluation indices for on-center handling, but it is not clear which ones are the key points on evaluation indices. In this paper, the authors propose a simplified on-center handling objective evaluation index system. Firstly, a basic on-center handling objective evaluation index system is summarized based on the ones of ISO, GM, MIRA, TRC and Hyundai, and then dynamics analysis on each index is conducted so as to primarily eliminate the redundant indices. Secondly, the repetitive indices are cut out again by the correlation analysis among indices in objective tests for eight types of vehicles. Thirdly, the importance factor of each subjective evaluation index is gained on the basis of subjective evaluation tests for eight types of vehicles by the weighed principal component analysis.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Multi-Universal Coupling Phase on Torsional Vibration of Drive Shaft and Vibration of Vehicle

Torsional vibration of drive shaft has great influence on the vibration of vehicle. Reasonable phase arrangement of multi-universal coupling can attenuate vibration. In this paper, theoretical model of drive shaft with planar multi-cross universal coupling was established; the optimization scheme of the phase arrangement of multi-cross universal coupling was presented. The results of test validation and simulation show that the optimization scheme is effective and reasonable. The results of test validation and simulation show that the optimization scheme was effective and reasonable and the optimized scheme could solve the abnormal vibration on floor. Arranging phases of universal joints reasonably is very significative for attenuate the torsional vibration of drive shaft and the floor vibration.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerant Control Against Actuator Failures of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

A fault tolerant control (FTC) approach based on reconfigurable control allocation for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles against driving motor failures is proposed in order to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability after the driving motor failures. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using model predictive control method; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels aiming at minimizing the total tire usage. The FTC approach is based on the reconfigurable control allocation which reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.

Multiaxial Fatigue

This book provides practicing engineers, researchers, and students with a working knowledge of the fatigue design process and models under multiaxial states of stress and strain. Readers are introduced to the important considerations of multiaxial fatigue that differentiate it from uniaxial fatigue.
Journal Article

GPS Modeling for Vehicle Intelligent Driving Simulation

In recent years, intelligent vehicles have become one of the major research topics in vehicle engineering and have created a new opportunity for the automotive industry. Simulation and real experiment are both essential to the development of intelligent vehicle technologies. Vehicle positioning systems, such as global positioning system (GPS), play an important role in intelligent vehicle development. The GPS model plays a major part in the development of intelligent vehicle simulation systems. Primarily focusing on application requirements of intelligent vehicle simulation platforms for GPS sensor modeling, considering the major factors affecting positioning accuracy in vehicle driving environments, this article establishes a new GPS model and algorithm based on the physical and functional characteristics of GPS. As the basis of this model system, a precise ephemeris model is established to obtain the coordinates of GPS satellites at any given time.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vision-Based Framework for Real-Time Lane Detection and Tracking

Lane detection is one of the most important part in ADAS because various modules (i.e., LKAS, LDWS, etc.) need robust and precise lane position for ego vehicle and traffic participants localization to plan an optimal routine or make proper driving decisions. While most of the lane detection approaches heavily depend on tedious pre-processing and great amount of assumptions to get reasonable result, the robustness and efficiency are deteriorated. To address this problem, a novel framework is proposed in this paper to realize robust and real-time lane detection. This framework consists of two branches, where canny edge detection and Progressive Probabilistic Hough Transform (PPHT) are introduced in the first branch for efficient detection.