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Technical Paper

GDI Engine Performance and Emissions with Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR)

2013-04-08
2013-01-0537
Exhaust Gas Fuel Reforming has potential to be used for on-board generation of hydrogen rich gas, reformate, and to act as an energy recovery system allowing the capture of waste exhaust heat. High exhaust gas temperature drives endothermic reforming reactions that convert hydrocarbon fuel into gaseous fuel when combined with exhaust gas over a catalyst - the result is an increase in overall fuel energy that is proportional to waste energy capture. The paper demonstrates how the combustion of reformate in a direct injection gasoline (GDI) engine via Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (REGR) can be beneficial to engine performance and emissions. Bottled reformate was inducted into a single cylinder GDI engine at a range of engine loads to compare REGR to conventional EGR. The reformate composition was selected to approximate reformate produced by exhaust gas fuel reforming at typical gasoline engine exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Research of the Atkinson Cycle in the Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0390
In the automotive industry, engine downsizing has been widely accepted as an enabler to improving the fuel economy and reducing the CO₂ emissions. The Atkinson cycle is one of the key technologies. In this paper, the Atkinson cycle with different expansion ratios are compared and analyzed. The investigation is compared with the benchmark whose expansion and compression ratio are identical. The aim is to understand the inherent characteristics of the over-expansion and its effect on the engine performance and emissions. The simulation results show that, the Atkinson cycle produces higher efficiency due to over-expansion. The Atkinson cycle has higher internal EGR compared with the benchmark at equivalent conditions, which contributes to lower the NOx and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency and Low Pollutants Combustion: Gasoline Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0382
A new combustion mode namely multiple premixed compression ignition (MPCI) for gasoline engines was proposed. The MPCI mode can be realized by two or more times gasoline injections into cylinder with a high pressure around the compression TDC and featured with a premixed combustion after each injection in the cylinder, which is different from the existed gasoline direct injection compression ignition (GDICI) modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with gasoline injection occurred in intake stroke, and partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode with multiple gasoline injections in intake and compression strokes before the start of combustion (SOC). Therefore the spray and combustion of the MPCI mode are alternatively occurred as "spray-combustion-spray-combustion" near the TDC, rather than "spray-spray-combustion" sequence as traditional PPCI gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a PPCI Engine Fuelled with Dieseline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1138
In this paper blends of diesel and gasoline (dieseline) fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) combustion and the comparison to conventional diesel combustion is investigated. The tests are carried out using a light duty four cylinder Euro IV diesel engine. The engine condition is maintained at 1800 rpm, 52 Nm (equivalent IMEP around 4.3 bar). Different injection timings and different amounts of EGR are used to achieve the PPCI combustion. The results show that compared to the conventional diesel combustion, the smoke and NOx emissions can be reduced by more than 95% simultaneously with dieseline fuelled PPCI combustion. The particle number total concentration can be reduced by 90% as well as the mean diameter (from 54 nm for conventional diesel to 16 nm for G50 fuelled PPCI). The penalty is a slightly increased noise level and lower indicated efficiency, which is decreased from 40% to 38.5%.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Role of Filtered EGR on PM Emissions

2011-08-30
2011-01-2080
In earlier work we have shown that engine operation with oxygenated fuels (e.g., biodiesel) reduces the particulate matter (PM) emissions and extends the engine tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) before it reaches smoke limited conditions. The same result has also been reported when high cetane number fuels such as gas-to-liquid (GTL) are used. A likely mechanism for engine-out particulate growth is the reintroduction of particle nuclei into the cylinder through EGR. These recirculated PM particles serve as sites for further condensation and accumulation promoting larger and greater number of particles. In order to further our understanding of EGR influence on total PM production, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) was integrated into the EGR loop. A PM reduction of approximately 50% (soot) was achieved with diesel fuel through filtered EGR, whilst still maintaining a significant NOX reduction.
Journal Article

Modelling of Soot Oxidation by NO2 in a Diesel Particulate Filter

2011-08-30
2011-01-2083
Two approaches were adopted to study soot oxidation by NO₂; firstly microreactor tests were performed on soot produced by a soot generator over a range of NO₂ concentrations and temperatures. This enabled measurement to be made under well-controlled conditions. Secondly, soot oxidation measurements were made on an engine bench to obtain data under more realistic, if less controlled, conditions. In the microreactor work NO₂ consumption by soot oxidation and the selectivity of the soot oxidation to CO and CO₂ were measured. The latter was found to vary only slightly with temperature and to be independent of NO₂ concentration. By modeling this data using a 1-dimensional model, rate equations for the soot-NO₂ reaction were determined. These were then tested against the engine data. The soot used in this study was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, N₂ physisorption and transmission electron microscopy.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Comprehensive Performance of Mufflers under Different Vehicle Running Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0901
The effective matching of the exhaust mufflers and engines is an important measure to reduce the noise emission of running vehicles. Currently, the matching is based mainly on the steady state performance of engine. The muffler's influence on a vehicle's noise emission and sound quality under different running conditions is not generally considered. A comprehensive performance evaluation method is proposed to describe the muffler's influence on a commercial vehicle's noise emission, sound quality and exhaust back pressure under multiple working conditions. The weighted insertion loss and linearity coefficient were defined based on the test data of the exhaust noise under different engine loads and speeds. A comprehensive performance evaluation method was defined from the test data analysis of engine exhaust noise with different mufflers. Finally, the simulation results of the exhaust noise of a vehicle with different mufflers were compared with test data.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emissions and Exhaust-Gas Reforming of an Emulsified Fuel: A Comparative Study with Conventional Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1809
The fuel reforming technology has been extensively investigated as a way to produce hydrogen on-board a vehicle that can be utilized in internal combustion engines, fuel cells and aftertreatment technologies. Maximization of H2 production in the reforming process can be achieved when there is optimized water (steam) addition for the different reforming temperatures. A way to increase the already available water quantity on-board a vehicle (i.e. exhaust gas water content) is by using emulsified fuel (e.g. water-diesel blend). This study presents the effect of an emulsified diesel fuel (a blend of water and diesel fuel with an organic surfactant to make the mixture stable) on combustion in conjunction with exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming on a compression ignition engine. No engine modification was required to carry out these tests. The emulsified diesel fuel consisted of about 80% (mass basis) of conventional ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and fixed water content.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emissions from Dual Fuelled Engine with In-Cylinder Injected Diesel Fuels and In-Port Injected Bioethanol

2009-06-15
2009-01-1853
Biofuels development and specification are currently driven by the engine (mainly gasoline- and diesel-type) technology, existing fossil fuel specification and availability of feedstock. The ability to use biofuels with conventional fuels without jeopardising the standard fuel specifications is a very effective means for the implementation of these fuels. In this work the effect of dual fuelling with in-cylinder injected ULSD fuel or synthetic second generation biofuels (a Gas-To-Liquid GTL fuel as a surrogate of these biofuels as its composition, specifications and production process are very similar to second generation biofuels) and with inlet port injected bioethanol on the engine performance and emissions were investigated. The introduction of anhydrous bioethanol improved the NOx and smoke emissions, but increased total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Temperature on Performance and Emissions of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)

2009-06-15
2009-01-1896
The paper presents analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a common rail diesel engine operating with RME, with and without EGR. In both cases, the RME fuel was pre-heated in a heat exchanger to control its temperature before being pumped to the common rail. The studied parameters include the in-cylinder pressure history, rate of heat release, mass fraction burned, and exhaust emissions. The results show that when the fuel temperature increases and the engine is operated without EGR, the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) decreases, engine efficiency increases and NOx emission slightly decreases. However, when EGR is used while fuel temperature is increased, the bsfc and engine efficiency is independent of fuel temperature while NOx slightly increases.
Technical Paper

Activity of Prototype Catalysts on Exhaust Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2514
A prototype catalyst has been developed and integrated within the aftertreatment exhaust system to control the HC, CO, PM and NOx emissions from diesel exhaust gas. The catalyst activity in removing HC and nano-particles was examined with exhaust gas from a diesel engine operating on biodiesel - Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME). The tests were carried out at steady-state conditions for short periods of time, thus catalyst tolerance to sulphur was not examined. The prototype catalyst reduced the amount of hydrocarbons (HC) and the total PM. The quantity of particulate with electrical mobility diameter in nucleation mode size < 10nm, was significantly reduced over the catalyst. Moreover, it was observed that the use of EGR (20% vol.) for the biodiesel fuelled engine significantly increases the particle concentration in the accumulation mode with simultaneous reduction in the particle concentration in the nuclei mode.
Journal Article

The Effect of Exhaust Throttling on HCCI - Alternative Way to Control EGR and In-Cylinder Flow

2008-06-23
2008-01-1739
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has emerged as a promising technology for reduction of exhaust emissions and improvement of fuel economy of internal combustion engines. There are generally two proposed methods of realizing the HCCI operation. The first is through the control of gas temperature in the cylinder and the second is through the control of chemical reactivity of the fuel and air mixture. EGR trapping, i.e., recycling a large quantity of hot burned gases by using special valve-train events (e.g. negative valve overlap), seems to be practical for many engine configurations and can be combined with any of the other HCCI enabling technologies. While this method has been widely researched, it is understood that the operating window of the HCCI engine with negative valve overlap is constrained, and the upper and lower load boundaries are greatly affected by the in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0209
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Effects of Seat Belts on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Risk in the Rollover of a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV)

2007-04-16
2007-01-1502
The aims of this study are to investigate the responses of a Hybrid III dummy and a human body model in rollover crashes of an SUV, and to assess the effect of seat belts on occupant kinematics in rollover events. A SAEJ2114 rollover test of a 1994 Ford Explorer for two front row dummies with an inflatable tubular structure (ITS) is reconstructed and validated in MADYMO. By removing the ITS, the simulations of the Hybrid III dummy occupants with and without seat belts are obtained. By replacing the dummy models with human body models, with and without seat belts, two other combinations are also modelled. The kinematics and injury risks of two kinds of occupant models are compared and evaluated. Significant differences exist in the motions, and injury levels of the dummies and human body models with and without seat belts. Seat belts can significantly mitigate against occupant ejection.
Technical Paper

The Risk Posed to Vehicle Occupants and Rescue Personnel by Dual-Fuelled Vehicles Fitted with Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Tanks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1274
In recent years in the United Kingdom, dual-fuelled vehicles incorporating Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) have become more prevalent, as there are the perceived benefits of reduced fuelling costs, whilst also reducing the harmful emissions that effect air quality and climate change. In 2001, over 75,000 vehicles were registered as being powered by LPG and it is estimated that nearly 250,000 conversions were made to UK cars by the end of 2004. It is considered that the world population of such vehicles is in the order of 5 million vehicles, 2 million of which are being driven within EU countries.1 This paper will therefore examine the incidence of car fires in the area covered by Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service (HWFRS) in the UK. The data was used to establish the travel time for fire pumps to such incidents, the amount of time those units were detained at the scene and the possible cause of the fires themselves.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Exhaust-Gas Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

1993-04-01
931096
This paper presents the findings of theoretical and practical studies of an exhaust-gas reforming process, as applied to hydrocarbon fuels. It is shown that hydrogen-containing gaseous reformed fuels can be produced by the interaction of hot combustion products and an n-heptane feedstock in a small-scale catalytic reforming reactor. Predicted and observed reformed fuel chemical compositions were found to correlate well at the lower reactor space velocities tested, where chemical equilibrium conditions can be closely approached. Under these conditions, respective hydrogen and carbon monoxide yields of around 32 and 20 volume per cent were obtained. Under certain conditions, it was found that carbon solids were deposited on the reforming catalyst. Measures taken to avoid this problem included changes in the reforming oxidant to fuel ratio, and the addition of excess steam to the oxidant composition.
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