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Journal Article

Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) Supply System Modelling for Control and Diagnosis Applications

The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system installed on the exhaust line is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for light and medium duty trucks, large passenger cars and off-highway vehicles, to fulfill future emission legislation. Some vehicles of these last categories, equipped with SCR, have been already put on the market, not only in the US, where the emission legislation on Diesel vehicles is more restrictive, but also in Europe, demonstrating to be already compliant with the upcoming Euro 6. Moreover, new and more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed all over the world, with a consequent rapidly increasing interest for this technology. As a matter of fact, a physical model of the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) supply system is very useful, not only during the product development phase, but also for the implementation of the on-board real-time controller.
Technical Paper

Ducati 999 Crankcase Strength Increase by Changing the Main Bearing Type

In all Ducati L-twins the crankshaft supports are rolling bearings. Due to the higher performance, compactness and lightness, the service life of the crankcase is becoming shorter and in future can become critical in the Ducati 999, the most powerful engine of the Borgo Panigale company. The engine block sidewalls must be strengthened in order to improve the reliability of the component. This can be done by reducing the size of the main bearing housings by the adoption of the plain bearings which have smaller radial dimensions. The stress field of the Ducati 999 crankcase in the two different configurations is calculated by means of the finite element method, applying the engine load in the critical conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines

The effects of numerical methodology in defining the initial conditions and simulating the compression stroke in D.I. diesel engine CFD computations are studied. Lumped and pointwise approaches were adopted in assigning the initial conditions at IVC. The lumped approach was coupled with a two-dimensional calculation of the compression stroke. The pointwise methodology was based on the results of an unsteady calculation of the intake stroke performed by using the STAR-CD code in the realistic engine and port geometry. Full engine and 60 deg. sector meshes were used in the compression stroke calculations in order to check the accuracy of the commonly applied axi-symmetric fluid dynamics assumption. Analysis of the evolution of the main fluid dynamics parameters revealed that local conditions at the time of injection strongly depend on the numerical procedure adopted.
Technical Paper

Engine Acoustic Emission Used as a Control Input: Applications to Diesel Engines

The need for strategies that allow managing combustion in an adaptive way has recently widely increased. Especially Diesel engines aimed for clean combustion require a precise control of the combustion outputs. Acoustic emission of internal combustion engines contains a lot of information related to engine behavior and working conditions. Mechanical noise and combustion noise are usually the main contributions to the noise produced by an engine. Combustion noise in particular can be used as an indicator of the combustion that is taking place inside the combustion chamber and therefore as a reference for the control strategy. This work discusses the correlations existing between in cylinder combustion and the acoustic emission radiated by the engine and presents a possible approach to use this signal in the engine management system for control purposes.
Technical Paper

Ethanol to Gasoline Ratio Detection via Time-Frequency Analysis of Engine Acoustic Emission

In order to reduce both polluting emissions and fuel costs, many countries allow mixing ethanol to gasoline either in fixed percentages or in variable percentages. The resulting fuel is labeled E10 or E22, where the number specifies the ethanol percentage. This operation significantly changes way the stoichiometric value, which is the air-to-fuel mass ratio theoretically needed to completely burn the mixture. Ethanol concentration must be correctly estimated by the Engine Management System to optimally control exhaust emissions, fuel economy and engine performance. In fact, correct fuel quality recognition allows estimating the actual stoichiometric value, thus allowing the catalyst system to operate at maximum efficiency in any engine working point. Moreover, also other essential engine control functions should be adapted in real time by taking into account the quality of the fuel that is being used.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Water and EGR Effects on Combustion Characteristics of GDI Engines Using a Chemical Kinetics Approach

The modern spark ignition engines, due to the introduced strategies for limiting the consumption without reducing the power, are sensitive to both the detonation and the increase of the inlet turbine temperature. In order to reduce the risk of detonation, the use of dilution with the products of combustion (EGR) is an established practice that has recently was improved with the use of water vapour obtained via direct or indirect injection. The application and optimization of these strategies cannot ignore the knowledge of physical quantities characterizing the combustion such as the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay, both are an intrinsic property of the fuel and are function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and dilution) and of its thermodynamic conditions. The experimental measurements of the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay available in literature, rarely report the effects of dilution by EGR or water vapor.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of the Geometrical Shape of ks-hole and Comparison of its Fluid Dynamic Performance Respect to Cylindrical and k-hole Layouts

Diesel engine performances are strictly correlated to the fluid dynamic characteristics of the injection system. Actual Diesel engines employ injector characterized by micro-orifices operating at injection pressure till 20MPa. These main injection characteristics resulted in the critical relation between engine performance and injector hole shape. In the present study, the authors' attention was focused on the hole geometry influence on the main injector fluid dynamic characteristics. At this purpose, three different nozzle hole shapes were considered: cylindrical, k, and ks nozzle shapes. Because of the lack of information available about ks-hole real geometry, firstly it was completely characterized by the combined use of two non-destructive techniques. Secondly, all the three nozzle layouts were characterized from the fluid dynamic point of view by a fully transient CFD multiphase simulation methodology previously validated by the authors against experimental results.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-board Application

Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the SA required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The model has been expanded to directly consider air-to-fuel ratio variation effects on combustion phasing, and the same controller structure could integrate other variables that influence 50 percent of Mass Fraction Burned angular position (MFB50), such as EGR.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the EGR System of a New Automotive Diesel Engine

In this paper an integrated experimental and numerical approach is applied to optimize a new 2.5l, four valve, turbocharged DI Diesel engine, developed by VM Motori. The study is focused on the EGR system. For this engine, the traditional dynamometer bench tests provided 3-D maps for brake specific fuel consumption and emissions as a function of engine speed and brake mean effective pressure. Particularly, a set of operating conditions has been considered which, according to the present European legislation, are fundamental for emissions. For these conditions, the influence of the amount of EGR has been experimentally evaluated. A computational model for the engine cycle simulation at full load has been built by using the WAVE code. The model has been set up against experiments, since an excellent agreement has been reached for all the relevant thermo-fluid-dynamic parameters. The simulation model has been used to gain a better insight on the EGR system operations.
Technical Paper

Fast Algorithm for On-Board Torque Estimation

Electronic Throttle Control systems substitute the driver in commanding throttle position, with the driver acting on a potentiometer connected to the accelerator pedal. Such strategies allow precise control of air-fuel ratio and of other parameters, e.g. engine efficiency or vehicle driveability, but require detailed information about the engine operating conditions, in order to be implemented inside the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). In order to determine throttle position, an interpretation of the driver desire (revealed by the accelerator pedal position) is performed by the ECU. In our approach, such interpretation is carried out in terms of a torque request that can be appropriately addressed knowing the actual engine-vehicle operating conditions, which depend on the acting torques. Estimates of the torque due to in-cylinder pressure (indicated torque), as well as the torque required by the vehicle (load torque), must then be available to the control module.
Technical Paper

Fast Prototyping of a Racing Diesel Engine Control System

This paper shows how Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have been applied to design and implement an engine control system for a common rail diesel engine. The project aim is to setup a high performance engine in order to participate to the Italian Tractor Pulling Championship (Prostock category). The original engine is a John Deere 6081 Tier2 model, already equipped with a common rail system. Engine performance is substantially determined by the control system, which is in charge of limiting engine speed, boost pressure and Air to Fuel Ratio (AFR). Given that typically the information and equipment needed to change control parameters are not accessible to customers, the first step of the project has been to replace the original control system, while maintaining injectors and pumps. This solution can guarantee the best performance, but it requires time to design the new control system, both in terms of hardware and software.
Journal Article

Geometric and Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of Actual Open Cell Foam Samples by a Novel Imaging Analysis Based Algorithm

Metallic open-cell foams have proven to be valuable for many engineering applications. Their success is mainly related to mechanical strength, low density, high specific surface, good thermal exchange, low flow resistance and sound absorption properties. The present work aims to investigate three principal aspects of real foams: the geometrical characterization, the flow regime characterization, the effects of the pore size and the porosity on the pressure drop. The first aspect is very important, since the geometrical properties depend on other parameters, such as porosity, cell/pore size and specific surface. A statistical evaluation of the cell size of a foam sample is necessary to define both its geometrical characteristics and the flow pattern at a given input velocity. To this purpose, a procedure which statistically computes the number of cells and pores with a given size has been implemented in order to obtain the diameter distribution.
Technical Paper

High Performance Motorbike Engine Block Structural Calculation

This article, deriving from the author's PhD research activity [1], contains an in-depth analysis of the stresses exerted on the crankcase of a Ducati 999 by its engine. The machine design study was financed by Ducati Motor Holding and involved several doctoral theses [2-3]. It ventures into a relatively unexplored field: the results achieved are set to become strategically important due to the size of the motorcycle market and to the strong appeal of motorcycle racing.
Technical Paper

Image Processing Based Air Vehicles Classification for UAV Sense and Avoid Systems

The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
Journal Article

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control for Engines with Unevenly Spaced Firing Order

The most recent European regulations for two- and three-wheelers (Euro 5) are imposing an enhanced combustion control in motorcycle engines to respect tighter emission limits, and Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) closed-loop control has become a key function of the engine management system also for this type of applications. In a multi-cylinder engine, typically only one oxygen sensor is installed on each bank, so that the mean AFR of two or more cylinders rather than the single cylinder one is actually controlled. The installation of one sensor per cylinder is normally avoided due to cost, layout and reliability issues. In the last years, several studies were presented to demonstrate the feasibility of an individual AFR controller based on a single sensor. These solutions are based on the mathematical modelling of the engine air path dynamics, or on the frequency analysis of the lambda probe signal.
Technical Paper

Influence of Cylindrical, k, and ks Diesel Nozzle Shape on the Injector Internal Flow Field and on the Emerging Spray Characteristics

Today, multi-hole Diesel injectors can be mainly characterized by three different nozzle hole shapes: cylindrical, k-hole, and ks-hole. The nozzle hole layout plays a direct influence on the injector internal flow field characteristics and, in particular, on the cavitation and turbulence evolution over the hole length. In turn, the changes on the injector internal flow correlated to the nozzle shape produce immediate effects on the emerging spray. In the present paper, the fluid dynamic performance of three different Diesel nozzle hole shapes are evaluated: cylindrical, k-hole, and ks-hole. The ks-hole geometry was experimentally characterized in order to find out its real internal shape. First, the three nozzle shapes were studied by a fully transient CFD multiphase simulation to understand their differences in the internal flow field evolutions. In detail, the attention was focused on the turbulence and cavitation levels at hole exit.
Journal Article

Injection Pattern Design for Real Time Control of Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission

Upcoming more stringent emission regulations throughout the world pose a real challenge, especially in regard to Diesel systems for passenger cars, where the need of additional after-treatment has a big impact in terms of additional system costs and available packaging space. Therefore, the need for strategies that allow managing combustion towards lower emissions, that require a precise control of the combustion outputs, is definitely increasing. Acoustic emission of internal combustion engines contains a large amount of information related to engine behavior and working conditions. Mechanical noise and combustion noise are usually the main contributions to the noise produced by an engine. In particular, recent research from the same authors of this paper demonstrated that combustion noise can be used as an indicator of the combustion that is taking place inside the combustion chamber and therefore as a reference for the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Injection Pattern Investigation for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis

Nowadays, compression-ignited engines are considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, mainly due to the current emission regulations, that require increasingly stringent reductions of NOx and particulate matter, the use of diesel-like fuels is becoming a critical issue. For this reason, a large amount of research and experimentation is being carried out to investigate innovative combustion techniques suitable to simultaneously mitigate the production of NOx and soot, while improving engine efficiency. In this scenario, the combined use of compression-ignited engines and gasoline-like fuels proved to be very promising, especially in case the fuel is directly-injected in the combustion chamber at high pressure. The presented study analyzes the combustion process produced by the direct injection of gasoline in a compression-ignited light-duty engine.
Journal Article

Innovative Techniques for On-Board Exhaust Gas Dynamic Properties Measurement

The purpose of this paper is to present some innovative techniques developed for an unconventional utilization of currently standard exhaust sensors, such as HEGO, UEGO, and NOx probes. In order to comply with always more stringent legislation about pollutant emissions, intake-exhaust systems are becoming even more complex and sophisticated, especially for CI engines, often including one or two UEGO sensors and a NOx sensor, and potentially equipped with both short-route and long-route EGR. Within this context, the effort to carry out novel methods for measuring the main exhaust gas dynamic properties exploiting sensors installed for different purposes, could be useful both for control applications, such as EGR rates estimation, or cost reduction, minimizing the on-board devices number. In this work, a gray-box model for measuring the gas mass flow rate, based on standard NOx sensor operating parameters of its heating circuit, is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Knock Damage Mechanisms on a GDI TC Engine

The recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, and knocking combustion mode has become one of the most relevant limiting factors. This paper reports the main results of a specific project carried out as part of a wider research activity, aimed at modelling and real-time controlling knock-induced damage on aluminum forged pistons. The paper shows how the main damage mechanisms (erosion, plastic deformation, surface roughness, hardness reduction) have been identified and isolated, and how the corresponding symptoms may be measured and quantified. The second part of the work then concentrates on understanding how knocking combustion characteristics affect the level of induced damage, and which parameters are mainly responsible for piston failure.