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Technical Paper

Software Integration for Simulation-Based Analysis and Robust Design Automation of HMMWV Rollover Behavior

2007-04-16
2007-01-0140
A multi-body dynamics model of the U.S. Army3s High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) has been created using commercial software (ADAMS) to simulate and analyze the vehicle3s rollover behavior. However, manual operation of such simulation and analysis for design purposes is prohibitively expensive and time consuming, limiting the engineers3 ability to utilize the model fully and extract from it useful design information in a timely, cost-effective manner. To address this challenge, a commercial system integration and optimization software (OPTIMUS) is utilized in order to automate the simulation processes and to enable the more complex uncertainty-based analysis of the HMMWV rollover behavior under a variety of external conditions. Challenges involved in integrating the software are highlighted and remedies are discussed. Rollover analysis results from using the integrated model and automated simulation are also presented.
Technical Paper

Improved Positioning Procedures for 6YO and 10YO ATDs Based on Child Occupant Postures

2006-11-06
2006-22-0014
The outcomes of crash tests can be influenced by the initial posture and position of the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) used to represent human occupants. In previous work, positioning procedures for ATDs representing adult drivers and rear-seat passengers have been developed through analysis of posture data from human volunteers. The present study applied the same methodology to the development of positioning procedures for ATDs representing six-year-old and ten-year-old children sitting on vehicle seats and belt-positioning boosters. Data from a recent study of 62 children with body mass from 18 to 45 kg were analyzed to quantify hip and head locations and pelvis and head angles for both sitter-selected and standardized postures. In the present study, the 6YO and 10YO Hybrid-III ATDs were installed using FMVSS 213 procedures in six test conditions used previously with children.
Technical Paper

A Magic Cube Approach for Crashworthiness Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-0671
Vehicle structure crashworthiness design is one of the most challenging problems in product development and it has been studied for decades. Challenges still remain, which include developing a reliable and systematic approach for general crashworthiness design problems, which can be used to design an optimum vehicle structure in terms of topology, shape, and size, and for both structural layout and material layout. In this paper, an advanced and systematic approach is presented, which is called Magic Cube (MQ) approach for crashworthiness design. The proposed MQ approach consists of three major dimensions: Decomposition, Design Methodology, and General Considerations. The Decomposition dimension is related to the major approaches developed for the crashworthiness design problem, which has three layers: Time (Process) Decomposition, Space Decomposition, and Scale Decomposition.
Technical Paper

Structural and Material Changes in the Aging Thorax and Their Role in Crash Protection for Older Occupants

2005-11-09
2005-22-0011
The human body undergoes a variety of changes as it ages through adulthood. These include both morphological (structural) changes (e.g., increased thoracic kyphosis) and material changes (e.g., osteoporosis). The purpose of this study is to evaluate structural changes that occur in the aging bony thorax and to assess the importance of these changes relative to the well-established material changes. The study involved two primary components. First, full-thorax computed tomography (CT) scans of 161 patients, age 18 to 89 years, were analyzed to quantify the angle of the ribs in the sagittal plane. A significant association between the angle of the ribs and age was identified, with the ribs becoming more perpendicular to the spine as age increased (0.08 degrees/year, p=0.012). Next, a finite element model of the thorax was used to evaluate the importance of this rib angle change relative to other factors associated with aging.
Technical Paper

Predicting Foot Positions for Manual Materials Handling Tasks

2005-06-14
2005-01-2681
For many industrial tasks (push, pull, lift, carry, etc.), restrictions on grip locations and visibility constrain the hand and head positions and help to define feasible postures. In contrast, foot locations are often minimally constrained and an ergonomics analyst can choose several different stances in selecting a posture to analyze. Also, because stance can be a critical determinant of a biomechanical assessment of the work posture, the lack of a valid method for placing the feet of a manikin with respect to the task compromises the accuracy of the analysis. To address this issue, foot locations and orientations were captured in a laboratory study of sagittal plane and asymmetric manual load transfers. A pilot study with four volunteers of varying anthropometry approached a load located on one of three shelves and transferred the load to one of six shelves.
Technical Paper

Balance Maintenance during Seated Reaches of People with Spinal Cord Injury

2004-06-15
2004-01-2138
In many task analyses using digital human figure models, only the terminal or apparently most stressful posture is analyzed. For reaches from a seated position, this is generally the posture with the hand or hands at the target. However, depending on the characteristics of the tasks and the people performing them, analyzing only the terminal posture could be misleading. This possibility was examined using data from a study of the reaching behavior of people with spinal cord injury. Participants performed two-handed forward reaching tasks. These reaches were to three targets located in the sagittal plane. The terminal postures did not differ significantly between those with spinal cord injury and those without. However, motion analysis demonstrated that they employed distinct strategies, particularly in the initial phase of motion.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Enterprise Context for Vehicle Design and Technology Valuation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1588
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Structures for Crashworthiness via Equivalent Mechanism Approximations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1731
A new method for crashworthiness optimization of vehicle structures is presented, where an early design exploration is done by the optimization of an equivalent mechanism approximating a vehicle structure. An equivalent mechanism (EM) is a network of rigid bodies connected by prismatic and revolute joints with special nonlinear springs. These springs are designed to mimic the force-displacement characteristics of thin-walled beams often found in the vehicle body structures. A computer software is implemented that allows the designer to quickly construct an equivalent mechanism model of a structure using a graphical user interface (GUI) to optimize the model for given objectives prior to final tuning using finite element (FE) models. A case study of a vehicle front substructure consisting of mid and lower rails is presented, which demonstrates that the new approach can obtain a better design with less computational resources than the direct optimization of a FE model.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Validity of Kinematically Generated Reach Envelopes for Simulations of Vehicle Operators

2003-06-17
2003-01-2216
Assessments of reach capability using human figure models are commonly performed by exercising each joint of a kinematic chain, terminating in the hand, through the associated ranges of motion. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, joint degrees of freedom, and joint ranges of motion. In this paper, the validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained in a laboratory study of men and women. Figures were created in the Jack human modeling software to represent the kinematic linkages of participants in the laboratory study. Maximum reach was predicted using the software's kinematic reach-envelope generation methods and by interactive manipulation. Predictions were compared to maximum reach envelopes obtained experimentally. The findings indicate that several changes to the normal procedures for obtaining maximum reach envelopes for seated tasks are needed.
Technical Paper

Detection of Ice on Aircraft Tail Surfaces

2003-06-16
2003-01-2112
A method is presented here that detects aircraft tail surface icing that might normally be unobserved by the flight crew. Such icing can be detected through the action of highly computationally efficient signal processing of existing sensor signals using a so-called failure detection filter (FDF). The FDF creates a unique output signature permitting relatively early detection of tail surface icing. The FDF incorporates a stable state estimator from which the icing signature is created. This estimator is robust to analytical modeling errors or uncertainties, and to process noise (e.g. turbulence). Excellent performance of the method is demonstrated via simulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Testing and Mathematical Modeling of the Interconnected Hydragas Suspension System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0312
The Moulton Hydragas suspension system improves small car ride quality by interconnecting the front and rear wheel on each side of the vehicle via a hydraulic fluid pipe between the front and rear dampers. A Hydragas system from a Rover Group MGF sports car was statically and dynamically tested to generate stiffness and damping coefficient matrices. The goal was to develop the simplest possible model of the system for use in ride quality studies. A linear model showed reasonable accuracy over restricted frequency ranges. A second model used bilinear spring and damping constants, and was more accurate for predicting force at both the front and rear units for frequencies from 1 to 8 Hz. The Hydragas system static stiffness parameters, when used in the model, caused peak force underprediction in the jounce direction. The bilinear model required increased jounce stiffness to account for hysteresis in the rubber elements of the system, and dynamic fluid flow phenomena.
Technical Paper

Modeling Variability in Reaching Motions

2001-06-26
2001-01-2094
Motion prediction models may give the average reach for an individual of specified characteristics. The actual reach will vary from this reach in a manner that may depend on both systematic and random factors. We describe a modeling approach that incorporates the variability within the reaches of a given subject and that between subjects. This information is useful to designers in investigating phenomena that may not occur during the average reach but may occur during variants such as collision with an obstacle or injury due to over-exertion.
Technical Paper

Rollover Propensity Evaluation of an SUV Equipped with a TRW VSC System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0128
In this paper, a simulation-based dynamic rollover evaluation procedure is described. This work is based on the worst-case methodology developed at the University of Michigan, and is the result of a collaborated research project between the University of Michigan and TRW Inc. The target vehicle studied in this paper is a large production volume SUV. This vehicle is equipped with a production-intent TRW Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) system. The main goals of this paper are to (i) study the rollover propensity of this SUV, as influenced by vehicle and environment parameters such as vehicle speed, road condition, etc.; and (ii) investigate whether, and by how much, does the VSC system influence the rollover propensity of this SUV. The modeling, evaluation procedure, and preliminary evaluation results are reported.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Vehicle Life Using Life Cycle Energy Analysis and Dynamic Replacement Modeling

2000-04-26
2000-01-1499
A novel application in the field of Life Cycle Assessment is presented that investigates optimal vehicle retirement timing and design life. This study integrates Life Cycle Energy Analysis (LCEA) with Dynamic Replacement Modeling and quantifies the energy tradeoffs between operating an older vehicle versus replacing it with a new more energy efficient model. The decision to keep or replace a vehicle to minimizes life cycle energy consumption is influenced by several factors including vehicle production energy, current vehicle's fuel economy and its deterioration with age, the improvement in fuel economy technology of new model vehicles and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Model simulations explore vehicle replacement under incremental improvements in vehicle technology and leapfrog technology improvements such as with the PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles).
Technical Paper

An Architecture for Autonomous Agents in a Driving Simulator

2000-04-02
2000-01-1596
The addition of synthetic traffic to a driving simulation greatly enhances the realism of the virtual world. Giving this traffic human-like behavior is likewise desirable, and has been the focus of some research over the past few years. This paper presents a modular architecture for including autonomous traffic in a driving simulation, and describes the first steps taken toward the application of this architecture to the DaimlerChrysler Auburn Hills Simulator. By separating the planning part of the agent from the low-level control and vehicle dynamics systems, the described architecture permits the inclusion of powerful, previously developed components in a straightforward way; in the present application, agents use Soar to reason about their actions. This paper gives an overview of the structures of the agents, and of the entire system, describes the components and their implementations, and discusses the current state of the project and plans for the future.
Technical Paper

Integration of Electromagnetic and Optical Motion Tracking Devices for Capturing Human Motion Data Woojin Park

1999-05-18
1999-01-1911
For human motion studies, which are to be used for either dynamic biomechanical analyses or development of human motion simulation models, it is important to establish an empirical motion database derived from efficient measurement and well-standardized data processing methodologies. This paper describes the motion recording and data processing system developed for modeling seated reach motions at the University of Michigan's HUMOSIM Laboratory. Both electromagnetic (Flock of Birds) and optical (Qualysis) motion capture systems are being used simultaneously to record the motion data. Using both types of devices provides a robust means to record human motion, but each has different limitations and advantages. The amount of kinematic information (DOFs), external sources of noise, shadowing, off-line marker identification/tracking time, and setup cost are key differences.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Rattle: Understanding Root Sources and Testing Methods

1999-05-17
1999-01-1729
This paper describes the rattle mechanisms that exist in seat belt retractors and the vehicle acceleration conditions that induce these responses. Three principal sources of rattle include: 1) the sensor, 2) the spool, and 3) the lock pawl. In-vehicle acceleration measurements are used to characterize retractor excitation and are subsequently employed for laboratory testing of retractor rattle. The merits and demerits of two testing methods, based on frequency domain and time domain shaker control, are discussed.
Technical Paper

An Experiment-Based Model of Fabric Heat Transfer and Its Inclusion in Air Bag Deployment Simulations

1999-03-01
1999-01-0437
A numerical model is presented that is capable of isolating and quantifying the heat flux from the gas within the bag to the air bag fabric due to internal surface convection during the inflator discharge period of an air bag deployment. The model is also capable of predicting the volume averaged fabric temperatures during the air bag deployment period. Implementation of the model into an air bag deployment code, namely Inflator Simulation Program (ISP), is presented along with the simulation results for typical inflators. The predicted effect of the heat loss from the bag gas to the fabric on the internal bag gas temperature and pressure and the resulting bulk fabric temperature as a function of fabric parameters and the inflator exit gas properties are presented for both permeable and impermeable air bag fabrics.
Technical Paper

Energy and Entropy in Airbag Deployment: The Effect on an Out-Of-Position Occupant

1999-03-01
1999-01-1071
Deployment of an airbag or charging of a tank by an inflator-canister system is a highly dynamic process. Quantification of energy storage, energy flux, work done, flow rates, thermodynamic properties, and energy conservation are essential to describe the deployment process. The concepts of available work and entropy production are presented as useful parameters when evaluating airbag aggressivity from tank test results for different types of inflators. This paper presents a computational methodology to simulate a pyro- and a hybrid-inflator-canister-airbag system to predict the force pattern that could occur on an out-of-position occupant when the airbag deploys. Comparisons with experimental data have been made in all cases where data were available. These include driver-, passenger-, and side-airbag designs.
Technical Paper

Transient Heating of Air Bag Fabrics: Experiment and Modeling

1998-02-23
980865
A model is presented in which distinction is made between the contributions of the different mechanisms of heat transfer to an air bag fabric during deployment. An experimental setup, designed for simulation and recording of the thermal response of permeable and coated (impermeable) air bag fabrics, is described. Comparisons between the experimental results and numerical predictions show fair agreement. The preliminary results show that the model provides a framework in which the interplay between the three convective heat transfer coefficients (two surface and one volumetric) that affect the fabric temperature (and the heat loss from the upstream bag gas) can be examined. Currently the magnitude of these surface convective heat fluxes are being examined experimentally.
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