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Technical Paper

Digital Human Modeling Goals and Strategic Plans

2008-06-17
2008-01-1933
Digital human modeling (DHM) progress worldwide will be much faster and cohesive if the diverse community now developing simulations has a global blueprint for DHM, and is able to work together efficiently. DHM developers and users can save time by building on each other's work. This paper highlights a panel discussion on DHM goals and strategic plans for the next decade to begin formulating the international blueprint. Four subjects are chosen as the starting points: (1) moving DHM into the public safety and internet arenas, (2) role of DHM in computer assisted surgery and automotive safety, (3) DHM in defense applications, and (4) DHM to improve workplace ergonomics.
Journal Article

Uncertainty Propagation in Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Undersea Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0218
In this paper the development of statistical metamodels and statistical fast running models is presented first. They are utilized for propagating uncertainties in a multi-discipline design optimization process. Two main types of uncertainty can be considered in this manner: uncertainty due to variability in design variables or in random parameters; uncertainty due to the utilization of metamodels instead of the actual simulation models during the optimization process. The value of the new developments and their engagement in multi-discipline design optimization is demonstrated through a case study. An underwater vehicle is designed under four different disciplines, namely, noise radiation, self-noise due to TBL excitation, dynamic response due to propulsion impact loads, and response to an underwater detonation.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Propulsion System for a Light Truck

2007-10-30
2007-01-4151
The global energy situation, the dependence of the transportation sector on fossil fuels, and a need for rapid response to the global warming challenge, provide a strong impetus for development of fuel efficient vehicle propulsion. The task is particularly challenging in the case of trucks due to severe weight/size constraints. Hybridization is the only approach offering significant breakthroughs in near and mid-term. In particular, the series configuration decouples the engine from the wheels and allows full flexibility in controlling the engine operation, while the hydraulic energy conversion and storage provides exceptional power density and efficiency. The challenge stems from a relatively low energy density of the hydraulic accumulator, and this provides part of the motivation for a simulation-based approach to development of the system power management. The vehicle is based on the HMMWV platform, a 4×4 off-road truck weighing 5112 kg.
Technical Paper

Software Integration for Simulation-Based Analysis and Robust Design Automation of HMMWV Rollover Behavior

2007-04-16
2007-01-0140
A multi-body dynamics model of the U.S. Army3s High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) has been created using commercial software (ADAMS) to simulate and analyze the vehicle3s rollover behavior. However, manual operation of such simulation and analysis for design purposes is prohibitively expensive and time consuming, limiting the engineers3 ability to utilize the model fully and extract from it useful design information in a timely, cost-effective manner. To address this challenge, a commercial system integration and optimization software (OPTIMUS) is utilized in order to automate the simulation processes and to enable the more complex uncertainty-based analysis of the HMMWV rollover behavior under a variety of external conditions. Challenges involved in integrating the software are highlighted and remedies are discussed. Rollover analysis results from using the integrated model and automated simulation are also presented.
Technical Paper

Flexible Low Cost Lane Departure Warning System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1736
Many highway accidents are caused by distracted drivers and those suffering from drowsy driver syndrome. A driver alert indicating a lane departure could thwart such accidents, saving lives and making our roads safer. Products called Lane Departure Warning Systems (LDWS) have been developed to alert drivers of a lane departure. However, due to their high cost, lane departure warning systems are available only on luxury vehicles, barring their benefits from the majority of drivers. With Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) becoming more powerful and more affordable, a LDWS implementation utilizing hardware rather than software to conduct image processing eliminates the need for a costly high-power microprocessor, and could bring LDWS to a broader user base. This paper will discuss an FPGA based approach to LDWS. The proof-of-concept system is based on a Xilinx FPGA, taking its image data from an off-the-shelf NTSC camera.
Technical Paper

Fast Prediction of HCCI Combustion with an Artificial Neural Network Linked to a Fluid Mechanics Code

2006-10-16
2006-01-3298
We have developed an artificial neural network (ANN) based combustion model and have integrated it into a fluid mechanics code (KIVA3V) to produce a new analysis tool (titled KIVA3V-ANN) that can yield accurate HCCI predictions at very low computational cost. The neural network predicts ignition delay as a function of operating parameters (temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and residual gas fraction). KIVA3V-ANN keeps track of the time history of the ignition delay during the engine cycle to evaluate the ignition integral and predict ignition for each computational cell. After a cell ignites, chemistry becomes active, and a two-step chemical kinetic mechanism predicts composition and heat generation in the ignited cells. KIVA3V-ANN has been validated by comparison with isooctane HCCI experiments in two different engines.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Reliability Estimation with Incomplete Uncertainty Information

2006-04-03
2006-01-0962
Existing methods for design optimization under uncertainty assume that a high level of information is available, typically in the form of data. In reality, however, insufficient data prevents correct inference of probability distributions, membership functions, or interval ranges. In this article we use an engine design example to show that optimal design decisions and reliability estimations depend strongly on uncertainty characterization. We contrast the reliability-based optimal designs to the ones obtained using worst-case optimization, and ask the question of how to obtain non-conservative designs with incomplete uncertainty information. We propose an answer to this question through the use of Bayesian statistics. We estimate the truck's engine reliability based only on available samples, and demonstrate that the accuracy of our estimates increases as more samples become available.
Technical Paper

A Magic Cube Approach for Crashworthiness Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-0671
Vehicle structure crashworthiness design is one of the most challenging problems in product development and it has been studied for decades. Challenges still remain, which include developing a reliable and systematic approach for general crashworthiness design problems, which can be used to design an optimum vehicle structure in terms of topology, shape, and size, and for both structural layout and material layout. In this paper, an advanced and systematic approach is presented, which is called Magic Cube (MQ) approach for crashworthiness design. The proposed MQ approach consists of three major dimensions: Decomposition, Design Methodology, and General Considerations. The Decomposition dimension is related to the major approaches developed for the crashworthiness design problem, which has three layers: Time (Process) Decomposition, Space Decomposition, and Scale Decomposition.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Model Robustness: A Case Study of the FMTV Military Truck Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0930
Vital to the effectiveness of simulation-based design is having a model of known quality of the system being designed. The purpose of this paper is to validate a simplified dynamic model of an FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles) for a range of system parameters using a previously developed technique for determining model robustness and accuracy within a design space. The literature provides an algorithm called AVASIM (Accuracy and Validity Algorithm for Simulation) for assessing model validity systematically and quantitatively. AVASIM assess the validity of a model based on a specific input and set of system parameters. The literature also defines a procedure for evaluating the robustness and accuracy of a model with respect to input and system parameter variations based on the AVASIM algorithm.
Technical Paper

Need to Jumpstart your Six Sigma Program: Try Benchmarking

2005-04-11
2005-01-1609
A Benchmarking technique known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) will be discussed as a jumpstart technique to put energy back into a company's Six Sigma program. A hypothetical example of benchmarking the production lines of a manufacturing company will be discussed using Six Sigma quality measures. Typical DEA software output will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Neural Networks for Representing the Air Flow Rate through a 2.4 Liter VVT Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-3054
The emerging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology complicates the estimation of air flow rate because both intake and exhaust valve timings significantly affect engine's gas exchange and air flow rate. In this paper, we propose to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model the air flow rate through a 2.4 liter VVT engine with independent intake and exhaust camshaft phasers. The procedure for selecting the network architecture and size is combined with the appropriate training methodology to maximize accuracy and prevent overfitting. After completing the ANN training based on a large set of dynamometer test data, the multi-layer feedforward network demonstrates the ability to represent air flow rate accurately over a wide range of operating conditions. The ANN model is implemented in a vehicle with the same 2.4 L engine using a Rapid Prototype Controller.
Technical Paper

Balance Maintenance during Seated Reaches of People with Spinal Cord Injury

2004-06-15
2004-01-2138
In many task analyses using digital human figure models, only the terminal or apparently most stressful posture is analyzed. For reaches from a seated position, this is generally the posture with the hand or hands at the target. However, depending on the characteristics of the tasks and the people performing them, analyzing only the terminal posture could be misleading. This possibility was examined using data from a study of the reaching behavior of people with spinal cord injury. Participants performed two-handed forward reaching tasks. These reaches were to three targets located in the sagittal plane. The terminal postures did not differ significantly between those with spinal cord injury and those without. However, motion analysis demonstrated that they employed distinct strategies, particularly in the initial phase of motion.
Technical Paper

Decomposition-based Assembly Synthesis of Automotive Body Structures

2004-03-08
2004-01-1730
This paper presents an extension of our previous work on decomposition-based assembly synthesis [1], where the 3D finite element model of a vehicle body-in-white (BIW) is optimally decomposed into a set of components considering the stiffness of the assembled structure under given loading conditions, and the manufacturability and assemblability of each component. The stiffness of the assembled structure is evaluated by finite element analyses, where spot-welded joints are modeled as linear torsional springs. In order to allow close examinations of the trade-off among stiffness, manufacturability, and assemblability, the optimal decomposition problem is solved by multi-objective genetic algorithm [2,3], with graph-based crossover [4,5], combined with FEM analyses, generating Pareto optimal solutions. Two software programs are developed to implement the proposed method.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Vehicle Structures for Crashworthiness via Equivalent Mechanism Approximations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1731
A new method for crashworthiness optimization of vehicle structures is presented, where an early design exploration is done by the optimization of an equivalent mechanism approximating a vehicle structure. An equivalent mechanism (EM) is a network of rigid bodies connected by prismatic and revolute joints with special nonlinear springs. These springs are designed to mimic the force-displacement characteristics of thin-walled beams often found in the vehicle body structures. A computer software is implemented that allows the designer to quickly construct an equivalent mechanism model of a structure using a graphical user interface (GUI) to optimize the model for given objectives prior to final tuning using finite element (FE) models. A case study of a vehicle front substructure consisting of mid and lower rails is presented, which demonstrates that the new approach can obtain a better design with less computational resources than the direct optimization of a FE model.
Technical Paper

An Optimization Study of Manufacturing Variation Effects on Diesel Injector Design with Emphasis on Emissions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1560
This paper investigates the effects of manufacturing variations in fuel injectors on the engine performance with emphasis on emissions. The variations are taken into consideration within a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) framework. A reduced version of Multi-Zone Diesel engine Simulation (MZDS), MZDS-lite, is used to enable the optimization study. The numerical noise of MZDS-lite prohibits the use of gradient-based optimization methods. Therefore, surrogate models are developed to filter out the noise and to reduce computational cost. Three multi-objective optimization problems are formulated, solved and compared: deterministic optimization using MZDS-lite, deterministic optimization using surrogate models and RBDO using surrogate models. The obtained results confirm that manufacturing variation effects must be taken into account in the early product development stages.
Technical Paper

Metamodel Development Based on a Nonparametric Isotropic Covariance Estimator and Application in a V6 Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1142
This paper presents the utilization of alternative correlation functions in the Kriging method for generating surrogate models (metamodels) for the performance of the bearings in an internal combustion engine. Originally, in the Kriging method an anisotropic exponential covariance function is developed by selecting optimal correlation parameters through optimization. In this paper an alternative nonparametric isotropic covariance approach is employed instead for generating the correlation functions. In this manner the covariance for spatial data is evaluated in a more straightforward manner. The metamodels are developed based on results from a simulation solver computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Lining Shape Optimization by Multibody Dynamic Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0725
Improving the performance characteristics of a typical disc brake encompasses a number of design strategies as well as limitations imposed by cost objectives. Utilizing pad loading uniformity in a design is one strategy that offers an improvement in desired performance characteristics, including a reduction in tapered lining wear as well as a possible reduced propensity for noise generation. To approach this design strategy, a procedure has been developed to tailor the brake pad lining profile to maximize pad loading uniformity in a multibody dynamics model of a typical disc brake. In determining an optimal lining configuration, a suitable compromise for gaining beneficial performance improvements in a cost effective manner is reached. The implementation of this design strategy involves the parametric definition of the lining profile by introducing a series of variables that are linked to the profile markers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of FEM Results Based upon FOA

2004-03-08
2004-01-1729
In FOA (First Order Analysis) any vehicle body structure might be interpreted as a collective simple structure that can be decomposed into 3 fundamental structure types. The first structure is the “BEAM”, whose cross sectional properties as well as its material dominates the mechanical behavior, the second is the “PANEL (shear panel, plate, and shell)”, whose mechanical behavior can be varied by changing its geometrical properties in the thickness direction, i.e. adding beads or flanges. The third structure is the “JOINT”, which connects the proceeding structures, and transfer complex three-dimensional loads with three-dimensional deformation. In the present work, we shall propose a methodology to identify a portion of an arbitrary FE model of an automotive body structure, with a “BEAM” structure in the FOA approach. In the latter chapter of this paper, cross section loads will be related with cross sectional properties in the aspect of the element strain energy concept.
Technical Paper

Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck

2003-11-10
2003-01-3369
The power management control system development and vehicle test results for a medium-duty hybrid electric truck are reported in this paper. The design procedure adopted is a model-based approach, and is based on the dynamic programming technique. A vehicle model is first developed, and the optimal control actions to maximize fuel economy are then obtained by the dynamic programming method. A near-optimal control strategy is subsequently extracted and implemented using a rapid-prototyping control development system, which provides a convenient environment to adjust the control algorithms and accommodate various I/O configurations. Dynamometer-testing results confirm that the proposed algorithm helps the prototype hybrid truck to achieve a 45% fuel economy improvement on the benchmark (non-hybrid) vehicle. It also compares favorably to a conventional rule-based control method, which only achieves a 31% fuel economy improvement on the same hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Validity of Kinematically Generated Reach Envelopes for Simulations of Vehicle Operators

2003-06-17
2003-01-2216
Assessments of reach capability using human figure models are commonly performed by exercising each joint of a kinematic chain, terminating in the hand, through the associated ranges of motion. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, joint degrees of freedom, and joint ranges of motion. In this paper, the validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained in a laboratory study of men and women. Figures were created in the Jack human modeling software to represent the kinematic linkages of participants in the laboratory study. Maximum reach was predicted using the software's kinematic reach-envelope generation methods and by interactive manipulation. Predictions were compared to maximum reach envelopes obtained experimentally. The findings indicate that several changes to the normal procedures for obtaining maximum reach envelopes for seated tasks are needed.
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