Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

Integration of Electromagnetic and Optical Motion Tracking Devices for Capturing Human Motion Data Woojin Park

For human motion studies, which are to be used for either dynamic biomechanical analyses or development of human motion simulation models, it is important to establish an empirical motion database derived from efficient measurement and well-standardized data processing methodologies. This paper describes the motion recording and data processing system developed for modeling seated reach motions at the University of Michigan's HUMOSIM Laboratory. Both electromagnetic (Flock of Birds) and optical (Qualysis) motion capture systems are being used simultaneously to record the motion data. Using both types of devices provides a robust means to record human motion, but each has different limitations and advantages. The amount of kinematic information (DOFs), external sources of noise, shadowing, off-line marker identification/tracking time, and setup cost are key differences.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Rattle: Understanding Root Sources and Testing Methods

This paper describes the rattle mechanisms that exist in seat belt retractors and the vehicle acceleration conditions that induce these responses. Three principal sources of rattle include: 1) the sensor, 2) the spool, and 3) the lock pawl. In-vehicle acceleration measurements are used to characterize retractor excitation and are subsequently employed for laboratory testing of retractor rattle. The merits and demerits of two testing methods, based on frequency domain and time domain shaker control, are discussed.
Technical Paper

An Experiment-Based Model of Fabric Heat Transfer and Its Inclusion in Air Bag Deployment Simulations

A numerical model is presented that is capable of isolating and quantifying the heat flux from the gas within the bag to the air bag fabric due to internal surface convection during the inflator discharge period of an air bag deployment. The model is also capable of predicting the volume averaged fabric temperatures during the air bag deployment period. Implementation of the model into an air bag deployment code, namely Inflator Simulation Program (ISP), is presented along with the simulation results for typical inflators. The predicted effect of the heat loss from the bag gas to the fabric on the internal bag gas temperature and pressure and the resulting bulk fabric temperature as a function of fabric parameters and the inflator exit gas properties are presented for both permeable and impermeable air bag fabrics.
Technical Paper

Energy and Entropy in Airbag Deployment: The Effect on an Out-Of-Position Occupant

Deployment of an airbag or charging of a tank by an inflator-canister system is a highly dynamic process. Quantification of energy storage, energy flux, work done, flow rates, thermodynamic properties, and energy conservation are essential to describe the deployment process. The concepts of available work and entropy production are presented as useful parameters when evaluating airbag aggressivity from tank test results for different types of inflators. This paper presents a computational methodology to simulate a pyro- and a hybrid-inflator-canister-airbag system to predict the force pattern that could occur on an out-of-position occupant when the airbag deploys. Comparisons with experimental data have been made in all cases where data were available. These include driver-, passenger-, and side-airbag designs.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Airbag Tank-Test Results

The evaluation of the performance of a particular inflator for the design of the entire airbag system is typically carried out by examining the pressure pattern in a standard tank test. This study assesses the adequacy of the tank test as a true measure of the likely performance of the actual inflator-airbag system. Theoretical arguments, numerical experiments, and physical experiments show that the time rate of pressure change may be an appropriate measure to evaluate performance of a specific type of inflator, particularly if variations in the inflator design maintain the same working gas components. However, when evaluating and comparing the dynamic behavior between different types of inflators, the time rate of pressure change provides useful but incomplete information.
Technical Paper

Transient Heating of Air Bag Fabrics: Experiment and Modeling

A model is presented in which distinction is made between the contributions of the different mechanisms of heat transfer to an air bag fabric during deployment. An experimental setup, designed for simulation and recording of the thermal response of permeable and coated (impermeable) air bag fabrics, is described. Comparisons between the experimental results and numerical predictions show fair agreement. The preliminary results show that the model provides a framework in which the interplay between the three convective heat transfer coefficients (two surface and one volumetric) that affect the fabric temperature (and the heat loss from the upstream bag gas) can be examined. Currently the magnitude of these surface convective heat fluxes are being examined experimentally.
Technical Paper

Permeability and Transient Thermal Response of Airbag Fabrics

The permeability of some airbag fabrics is determined, along with the Ergun coefficient signifying departure from purely viscous flow, from gas flow rates and pressure drop measurements. The dependency of these coefficients on the fabric temperature is also examined. Preliminary results are reported on the transient response of these fabrics to temporal changes in the gas flow rate and temperature. The temperature history is measured and compared with the predictions of some simple models. The models make various assumptions regarding the microscale of the fabrics. The preliminary results show that the very fine microscales do not control the time response of the fabric.
Technical Paper

Offset Frontal Collisions: A Review of the Literature and Analysis of UMTRI and NASS Crash Injury Data - CDC, AIS and Body Area Injuries

Using the CDC (SAE J224), a comparison of the NASS data and the UMTRI field accident files (UM series) indicates a similar distribution of offset frontal crashes. Offset frontal damage occurs in 56-61% of crashes, often involving more than one third of the front of the car. Lap-shoulder belted drivers sustain more AIS 2 or greater injuries when there is interior intrusion and occur more often when the offset damage is in front of the driver. However, this may well be due to the severity of the crash. European studies have no uniformity as to offset frontal collision descriptors are difficult to interpret, or to compare one to another.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Passenger Car Side Impacts - Crash Location, Injuries, AIS and Contacts

NASS 80-88 passenger side impacts data were analyzed. Location of primary car damage using the CDC classification, the AIS for injury severity studies, and the interior contacts of the various body areas. Drivers alone, or with passengers were studied separately in both left and right side crashes. Direct impacts to the passenger compartment only are less frequent than to other CDC side zones. Driver interior contacts vary by body region but also by side impacted in the crash. The presence of an unrestrained front passenger appears to enhance driver injury level in left side crashes but the presence of a passenger, in right side crashes appears to moderate driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Advanced Anthropomorphic Test Device Concept Definition

This paper summarizes the results of Phase 1, Concept Definition, of the AATD program and identifies the reasons such a new test device is needed. The following areas are addressed: 1) injury priority from accident data; 2) current dummy design, use, and potential improvements; and 3) technical characteristics and design concepts for a new AATD, its data processing, and its certification systems.
Technical Paper

Severe to Fatal Injuries to Lap-Shoulder Belted Car Occupants

Lap-shoulder belt effectiveness has been indicated by many authors, however there is minimal information on the more severe injuries to lap-shoulder belted car occupants. This paper presents details of 15 lap-shoulder belted occupants in frontal collisions and 24 lap-shoulder belted occupants in side impact collisions. Case descriptions of these crashes are presented, each including vehicle, environmental and injury details.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Properties of the Human Neck in Lateral Flexion

Properties of the human neck which may influence a person's susceptibility to “whiplash” injury during lateral impact have been studied in 96 normal subjects. Subjects were chosen on the basis of age, sex, and stature and data were grouped into six primary categories based on sex (F, M) and age (18-24, 35-44, 62-74). The data include: measures of head, neck and body anthropometry in standing and simulated automotive seating positions, three-dimensional range of motion of the head and neck, head/neck response to low-level acceleration, and both stretch reflex time and voluntary isometric muscle force in the lateral direction. Reflex times are found to vary from about 30 to 70 ms with young and middle aged persons having faster times than older persons, and females having faster times than males. Muscle strength decreases with age and males are, on the average, stronger than females.
Technical Paper

Infant and child anthropometry

Although over 800 references to child and infant anthropometry are in the literature, most have limited validity and application to current populations. Functional measures required by industry and government for federal safety standards for design of dummies, child products, furniture, or protective devices such as restraint systems have either been incomplete, inadequate, or nonexistent. Some of the limitations influencing validity of existing data have been outlined for the potential user. As a start toward obtaining necessary functional anthropometric data, The University of Michigan is currently conducting a study sponsored by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission to obtain valid nationwide measurements on a representative U.S. population from birth to age 12 years. In this study some 41 measurements, including many functional measures, as well as seated and supine whole-body centers of gravity, are being taken utilizing a new automated anthropometric minicomputer system.
Technical Paper

Automotive Nuclear-Heat Engines and Associated High-Temperature Materials

APPLICATION of nuclear energy for civilian automotive uses has possibilities, these authors say. Nuclear power for automotive applications, they feel, is technically feasible now where size and weight are not prime considerations; where size and weight are major parameters, discoveries of new materials for construction of nuclear-power reactors must be made. New materials are needed for reactor fuels, heat extractants, neutron reflectors, reactor construction materials, controls, and radiation shields which must have unique nuclear properties in addition to conventional engineering properties. This paper presents nuclear automotive propulsion devices in terms of technologies now available. The necessary radiation-shielding mass and weight requirements are presented for an ideal point-source nuclear-heat-power engine.