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Technical Paper

A Network-Based Expert System for Comparative Analysis of Pulley Assembly Methods

1990-02-01
900818
The pulleys employed in automotive accessory drive systems very often consist of a two piece assembly; a multitude of fastening techniques are used in completing the assembly. There are numerous assembly methods and a variety of distinct pulley configurations dictated by the various automobile manufacturers in accordance with individual accessory drive needs. An expert system is being developed to evaluate the merit of multiple assembly alternatives for a specific pulley application. The expert system provides a consistent evaluation tool for assembly alternatives, balancing the influence of product cost, strength and quality considerations. The knowledge-based system is implemented in an expert system shell called AGNESS (A Generalized Network-based Expert System Shell). The expert system judges the acceptability of various pulley assembly techniques, assigning a high “merit value” to the better designs and proportionately lower values to less desirable designs.
Technical Paper

The Electric Car Made It After All

1986-10-20
861046
The role of automotive electronics in light duty vehicles is continuing to expand rapidly. In this paper an overview of a 1986 Delphi forecast of major trends is presented. Trends discussed include electronics as a fraction of vehicle and component cost and projections of basic vehicle features supported by electronic technology. In addition, basic trends in diagnostics and multiplexing are presented. Several issues in support of automotive electronics are discussed, including the systems approach to vehicle engineering, the importance of developing a proper market strategy, and the continued major role of energy economics. The Delphi forecasting technique and its governing concepts are reviewed as a method to predict the future of automotive technology.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Turbulence on the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Combustion in a Constant Volume Reactor

1984-02-01
840366
A cylindrical combustion bomb with dynamic charging system and electro-hydraulic sampling valve is used to study the effects of turbulence on hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from a quench layer and from artificial crevices. The turbulence level is varied by changing the delay time between induction of combustible charge and ignition. Propane-air mixtures were studied over an initial pressure range of 150 to 500 kPa and equivalence ratios of 0.7 to 1.4. Sampling valve experiments show that quench-layer fuel hydrocarbons are extensively oxidized within 5 ms of flame arrival under laminar conditions and that turbulence further reduces the already low level. Upper limit estimates of the residual wall layer HC concentration show that residual quench layer hydrocarbons are only a small fraction of the exhaust HC emission.
Technical Paper

Recent Aircraft Tire Thermal Studies

1982-02-01
821392
A method has been developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions at the wheel and runway surface. Comparisons with buried thermocouples in actual aircraft tires shows good agreement.
Technical Paper

Rolling Resistance Measurements of New and Retreaded Truck Tires

1982-02-01
821268
Rolling resistance measurements were made on a sample of twenty-four retreaded and four new truck tires spanning a variety of constructions, tread patterns and tread depths. Examination of the results showed some relationship between three construction features and the resulting rolling resistance values. These are (a) Radial or bias carcass construction, (b) Tread pattern, and (c) Tread depth. The latter two characteristics can over-ride radial or bias construction effects. The effect of tread compound could not be analyzed in this limited test program. Good quality retreaded truck tires can exhibit comparable rolling resistance with new truck tires.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Secondary Fuel Injection on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions of An Open-Chamber Diesel Engine

1978-02-01
780786
Secondary injection in a diesel engine is defined as the introduction of additional fuel into the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is usually caused by residual pressure waves in the high-pressure pipe line connecting the pump and injector. When these waves exceed the injector opening pressure, secondary injection occurs. Tests revealed that the U.S. Army TACOM single-cylinder engine used in this investigation, fitted with an American Bosch injection system, had secondary injection within the normal engine operating region. The pump spill ports and delivery valve were redesigned to eliminate secondary injection, in accordance with previously reported work. Comparative tests of both the conventional and modified injection systems were run on the same engine, and the effects of secondary injection on engine power, economy, and exhaust emissions were determined.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Control of Transient Flow in the Diesel Injection System Part II - Design Results of Controlled After-Injection

1973-02-01
730662
After-injection is the introduction of additional fuel to the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is a persistent diesel fuel injection problem which usually results in reduced engine power and economy and increased emissions. After-injection is caused by uncontrolled pressure transients at the injector after the opening of the pump spill port. These pressure transients are related to the wave propagation phenomena in the high-pressure pipeline connecting the pump and injector. Use of experimental trial-and-error methods in attempts to control this phenomenon has met with limited success. The analytical control method described in another paper is used to determine design means by which after-injection may be controlled. Further investigation and evaluation of two design changes which release the injection system excess elastic energy in a controlled manner are considered herein. One design change is the addition of a control valve in the pump delivery chamber.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Injection System Simulation and Experimental Correlation

1971-02-01
710569
A theoretical digital simulation of a conventional diesel fuel injection system has been developed. The influence of such factors as wave propagation phenomena, pipe friction, and cavitation are included. The computer results are compared with transient pressures as measured on an actual fuel injection system operated on a test bench. The comparisons show the accuracy and validity of this simulation scheme. Special attention is given to some of the important factors that affect the accuracy of the simulation model. These include the effect of pressure on the fuel bulk modulus and wave speed, the pipe line residual pressure, and the coefficient of discharge of important orifices.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Cord Loads in Tires on Roadwheel and Highway

1970-02-01
700093
Strain gage instrumented transducers were used to measure the cord loads at a number of locations in several different automotive tires loaded against both flat and cylindrical road wheel surfaces. The two basic types of cord load fluctuation encountered in all automobile tires have been identified from these measurements, and the most severe location for cord load fluctuations has been closely bracketed. By these measurements, it has been possible to show that for each tire definite relations exist between the cord loads induced while running on a cylindrical drum and while running on a flat surface. The maximum cord load fluctuations in a tire are the same for the NBS roadwheel and flat surface when the tire is loaded against the roadwheel with a load of between 85 and 90% of that used on the flat surface.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Tire Shear Forces

1970-02-01
700092
Based on a review of existing theoretical and empirical knowledge of the mechanics of pneumatic tires and tire/vehicle systems, a requirement is defined for experimental data relating the shear forces developed at the tire-road interface to the kinematic variables of influence. Test equipment to satisfy this requirement consists of two complementary pieces of apparatus: a laboratory facility which is a modified version of the B. F. Goodrich flat-bed tester, and a mobile device which consists of a three-component (Fx, Fy, Mz) strain-gage dynamometer mounted on a heavy duty highway tractor. The latter provides a capability for testing at speeds up to 70 mph, normal loads up to 2000 lb, tire sideslip angles up to 18 deg, and steady state or programmed variations in longitudinal tire slip from fully locked (100% slip) to 30% overdriven (-30% slip). Representative samples of tire mechanics data obtained using the new equipment are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Mixture Motion - Its Effect on Pressure Rise in a Combustion Bomb: A New Look at Cyclic Variation

1968-02-01
680766
Cycle-to-cycle variation of pressure is a common problem in all spark-ignition engines. To examine the suspected influence of mixture-motion on this variation, a study was performed in a constant volume cylindrical bomb in which a jet of propane-air mixture was directed at the initial flame kernel. The rate of pressure rise of the jet-influenced combustion was compared to the rate for combustion in a quiescent mixture. The flame area, obtained using a spark schlieren photographic technique, and the calculated combustion rate were correlated with the pressure rate. The major results were: the rate of pressure rise increased approximately linearly with mixture jet velocity; and the width of the mixture-jet had an effect on the rate of pressure rise. A jet profile width slightly greather than the spark-gap produced the highest rate of pressure rise.
Technical Paper

Vibratory Loosening of Bolts

1966-02-01
660432
In this paper, the effects of fluctuating torque on loosening of a tightly seated bolt are investigated. Tests over a wide range of bolt stresses and loosening torques are reported and equipment developed for determination of such effects is described. It is shown that a definite functional relationship exists between the stress on a typical bolt, the oscillatory loosening torque that is applied, and the number of cycles before the bolt becomes loose. The effects of these relationships follow a clearly defined law, although they are, of course, influenced by a number of additional variables.
Technical Paper

Airborne Laser Radar Investigations of Clear Air Turbulence

1966-02-01
660190
Conclusions based on the airborne experiments with laser radars are summarized in this paper. Details of the equipment and the flight procedures will be displayed during the oral presentation at the conference.
Technical Paper

RIDING COMFORT and CUSHIONS

1940-01-01
400171
THIS paper reports work begun in 1935 at the instigation of the Murray Corp. of America. Methods used in studying the relations between the automobile seat cushion and its function in transporting passengers with greater comfort and less fatigue are described. Constructed for this purpose was a piece of apparatus called the Universal Test Seat, whose dimensions were completely adjustable with arrangements to vary the distribution of the supporting pressure in any manner which seemed most comfortable to the passenger. The authors describe tests made by use of this apparatus, present summaries of some of the results recorded and conclude that, to give the passenger the maximum comfort and least fatigue, the following mechanical objectives should be attained by the cushion: 1. To support the passenger over a large area to get the smallest unit pressure on the flesh; 2.
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