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Technical Paper

Synchronous, Simultaneous Optimization of Ignition Timing and Air-Fuel Ratio in a Gas-Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

1994-03-01
940547
A two-dimensional optimization process which simultaneously adjusts the spark timing and air-fuel ratio of a lean-burn natural gas fueled engine has been demonstrated. This has been done by first mapping the thermal efficiency against spark timing and equivalence ratio at a single speed and load combination to obtain the 3-D surface of efficiency versus the other two variables. Then the ability of the control system to find and hold the combination of timing and air-fuel ratio which gives the highest thermal efficiency was explored. The control system described in SAE Paper No. 940546 was used to map the thermal efficiency versus equivalence ratio and ignition timing. NOx, CO, and HC maps were also obtained to determine the tradeoffs between efficiency and emissions. A load corresponding to a brake mean effective pressure of 0.467 MPa was maintained by a water brake dynamometer. A speed of 2000 rpm was maintained by a fuel-controlled governor.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Soy Methyl Ester Fuels in an IDI Compression Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950400
As part of an ongoing program to control the emissions of diesel-powered equipment used in underground mines, the U. S. Bureau of Mines evaluated exhaust emissions from a compression ignition engine using oxygenated diesel fuels and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). The fuels include neat (100%) soy methyl ester (SME), and a blend of 30% SME (by volume) with 70% petroleum diesel fuel. A Caterpillar 3304 PCNA engine was tested for approximately 50 hours on each fuel. Compared with commercial low-sulfur diesel fuel (D2), neat SME increased volatile organic diesel particulate matter (DPM) but greatly decreased non-volatile DPM, for a net decrease in total DPM. The DOC further reduced volatile and total DPM NOx emissions were slightly reduced for the case of neat SME, but otherwise were not significantly affected. Peak brake power decreased 9% and brake specific fuel consumption increased 13 to 14% for the neat methyl soyate because of its lower energy content compared with D2.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Physical Properties and Autoignition Parameters of Alternate Fuels

1985-02-01
850266
The correlations between the physical properties and autoignition parameters of several alternate fuels have been examined. The fuels are DF-2 and its blends with petroleum derived fuels, coal derived fuels, shale derived fuels, high aromatic naphtha sun-flower oils, methanol and ethanol. A total of eighteen existing correlations are discussed. An emphasis is made on the suitability of each of the correlations for the development of electronic controls for diesel engines when run on alternate fuels. A new correlation has been developed between the cetane number of the fuels and its kinematic viscosity and specific gravity.
Technical Paper

Particle and Gaseous Emission Characteristics of a Formula SAE Race Car Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1400
The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particle Number and Size Distributions with Conventional and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels

2002-10-21
2002-01-2727
Diesel exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions, as well as gaseous and particulate mass emissions, were measured during steady-state tests on a US heavy-duty engine and a European passenger car engine. Two fuels were compared, namely a Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel manufactured from natural gas, and a US D2 on-highway diesel fuel. With both engines, the Fischer-Tropsch fuel showed a considerable reduction in the number of particles formed by nucleation, when compared with the D2 fuel. At most test modes, particle number emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles. Consequently, there were generally large reductions (up to 93%) in the total particle number emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. It is thought that the most probable cause for the reduction in nucleation mode particles is the negligible sulphur content of the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. In general, there were also reductions in all the regulated emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
Technical Paper

An Exhaust Ionization Sensor for Detection of Late Combustion with EGR

1989-09-01
892084
In many operating regimes, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) while maintaining MBT spark timing improves cycle efficiency in SI engines. As the level of exhaust dilution is increased, the flame speed is reduced and the combustion rate is impaired. This leads to a drop in fuel economy as EGR rates are increased beyond the optimal level. To take advantage of the efficiency benefit of EGR without incurring the penalties of late combustion, a sensor which detects late combustion is tested. The signal from an ionization sensor placed near the exhaust port has been found to correlate to combustion which continues late into the expansion stroke. It may be possible to use the output from the ion sensor to maintain the EGR at the the optimum for fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Alcohols as Supplemental Fuel for Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1975-02-01
750469
Alcohols are examined as supplemental carbureted fuels for highspeed turbocharged diesels as typified by the White Motor/Waukesha F310 DBLT (6 cylinder, 310 cu. in.). Most of the work was with methanol; ethanol and isopropanol were compared at a few points. Fumigation (dual-fueling) with alcohol significantly reduced smoke and intake manifold temperature. These effects were largest at high load. Efficiency and HC emissions were essentially unchanged. Cylinder pressures and rise rates were examined for possible adverse effects on engine structure. The range of speed and load favorable to alcohol dual-fueling are such that, should alcohols become economically competitive as fuels, a practical duel-fuel system could be applied to existing diesel engines.
Journal Article

Emissions Effects of Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel with Diesel and Biodiesel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0648
A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Technical Paper

Off-shoring EMS and the Barrier of Test-in-Reliability

2008-10-07
2008-01-2712
The history of off-road equipment manufacturing has been based on proven designs and long times between model updates. In sharp contrast with this strategy is the electronic manufacturing services (EMS) industry. The EMS industry is driven by the larger consumer product industry's continuing pressure for lower costs. Because of this, EMS tools, processes, and practices have evolved to support rapid technology and component changes. However the increasing consumer demand for features like better user-interfaces, more efficient fuel consumption, and the desire for increased operational controls in equipment have forced the off-road industry to increase the frequency of product updates to meet customers' needs. Equipment manufacturers make running changes leading to a “Learning-by-doing” development and manufacturing process. But rapid changes sometimes have an unpredictable impact on the reliability of the final product.
Technical Paper

Transient Particulate Emissions from Diesel Buses During the Central Business District Cycle

1996-02-01
960251
Particulate emissions from heavy-duty buses were measured in real time under conditions encountered during the standard Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses tested were equipped with 1994 Detroit Diesel Engine Corporation 6V92-TA engines, and some included after treatment devices on the exhaust. Instantaneous, time-resolved measurements of CO2 and amorphous carbon concentrations were obtained using an optical extinction technique and compared to simultaneous results obtained using conventional dilution tunnel sampling methods. Good agreement was obtained between the real-time extinction measurements and the diluted CO2 and cycle-integrated filter measurements. The instantaneous measurements revealed that acceleration transients accounted for roughly 80% of the particulate mass emitted during the cycle but only about 45% of the fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A PC-Based Fuel and Ignition Control System Used to Map the 3-D Surfaces of Torque and Emissions Versus Air-Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing

1994-03-01
940546
A system was designed for controlling fuel injection and ignition timing for use on a port fuel injected, gas-fueled engine. Inputs required for the system include manifold absolute pressure, manifold air temperature, a once per revolution crankshaft pulse, a once per cycle camshaft pulse, and a relative encoder pulse train to determine crank angle. A prototype card installed in the computer contains counters and discrete logic which control the timing of ignition and injection events. High current drivers used to control the fuel injector solenoids and coil primary current are optically isolated from the computer by the use of fiber optic cables. The programming is done in QuickBASIC running in real time on a 25 MHz 80486 personal computer. The system was used to control a gas-fueled spark ignition engine at various conditions to map the torque versus air-fuel ratio and ignition timing. Each surface was mapped for a given fuel flow and speed.
Technical Paper

Influence of a Fuel Additive on the Performance and Emissions of a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
941015
This report describes tests of a fuel additive in a medium-duty, high-swirl, direct-injection diesel engine. The additive was found to have little influence on general combustion performance or on NOx emissions. On the other hand, it had a profound effect on particulate emissions. This was most clear under high load where particle emissions are highest. Here, when the engine was switched from running on the base fuel to the additive treated fuel, particle emissions at first increased and then fell to levels about 40% lower (by particle volume) than those initially produced by the base fuel. The additive had a long lasting effect. After running with the additive for about 25 hours, emission levels with the base fuel were only slightly higher than those with the additive treated fuel. We believe that the additive action is associated with a combination of cleaning and surface conditioning. More work should be done to understand the relative importance of these two mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles: Performance, Emissions, Economics, Safety, and Development Status

1993-03-01
930731
This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of various alternative fuel technologies for heavy-duty transit applications and compares them to conventional and “ clean” diesel engines. Alternative powerplants considered include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and several electric technologies. The various technologies are ranked according to emissions, operating and capital costs, safety, development status, driveability, and long term fuel supply. A simple spreadsheet-based rating system is presented; it not only provides a versatile, semi-quantitative way to rank technologies using both quantitative and qualitative information, but also helps identify critical areas which limit implementation for a given application. An example is given for urban transit buses.
Technical Paper

Influence of an Iron Fuel Additive on Diesel Combustion

1998-02-23
980536
This program used a 0.6 liter DI NA single cylinder diesel engine to study the influence of ferrocene as a fuel additive on particulate and NOx emissions and heat release rates. Previous Studies1,15 have shown efficiency and particulate emission benefits only after engine conditioning. Two engine configurations were tested: standard aluminum piston with normal engine deposits and a second test with the engine cleaned to “new engine condition”, but with the piston replaced with a thermal barrier coated piston. Particle concentration and size in roughly the 7.5 to 750 nm diameter range were measured with a condensation nucleus counter and an electrical aerosol analyzer. Heat release rates and IMEPs were calculated from in-cylinder pressure data. Particle number concentrations increased substantially when the 250 ppm dose was first started with both engine configuration, but decreased 30% to 50% with conditioning.
Technical Paper

Modifications of a Quad 4 Engine to Permit Late Intake Valve Closure

1992-09-01
921663
Previous studies have shown Late Intake Valve Closure (LIVC) through Variable Valve Timing (VVT) to offer reduced fuel consumption through reduced pumping work. Load modulation through the controlled phasing of one of two intake valves/cylinder is one means of accomplishing the LIVC strategy on a multi-valve engine. Experimental studies of LIVC show that cycle-to-cycle variations and reduced flame velocity in single or synchronized multiple intake valve engines are associated with performance which, though superior to throttled engine performance, falls short of its promised fuel economy. To examine if the higher mixture velocity promised by valve phasing relative to single or synchronized LIVC mitigates cycle-to-cycle variations and flame velocity defects, a modification of the Quad 4 engine has been designed and built and is, at the present writing, being tested. The design employs a third camshaft placed above the original intake valve camshaft.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Knock Detection Using In-Cylinder Optical Probes

1996-10-01
962103
Two types of in-cylinder optical probes were applied to a single cylinder CFR engine to detect knocking combustion. The first probe was integrated directly into the engine spark plug to monitor the radiation from burned gas in the combustion process. The second was built into a steel body and installed near the end gas region of the combustion chamber. It measured the radiant emission from the end gas in which knock originates. The measurements were centered in the near infrared region because thermal radiation from the combustion products was believed to be the main source of radiation from a spark ignition engine. As a result, ordinary photo detectors can be applied to the system to reduce its cost and complexity. It was found that the measured luminous intensity was strongly dependent upon the location of the optical sensor.
Technical Paper

Improving Air Quality by Using Biodiesel in Generators

2004-10-25
2004-01-3032
A biodiesel / petroleum fuel blend and practical low-cost methods of emission control were sought to obtain reductions in emissions from diesel generators. Little direct testing of biodiesel in diesel-powered electric generators has been done. Laboratory and field evaluations were conducted to determine the influence of using biodiesel on diesel exhaust emissions. B20 (20% biodiesel / 80% petroleum diesel) was chosen because of previously successful studies with this blend level, and there is evidence that the NOx emissions increase that result from using B20 can be controlled using existing technology. B85 was selected because it is a “high blend,” which promised to give a large decrease in PM at the expense of a larger increase in NOx than B20, but still within the range of control with existing technology. Charge-air cooling and a fuel additive were tested as NOx controls. For PM, CO, and HC reduction, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was evaluated.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on In-Cylinder Reforming Chemistry Using Gas Chromatography

2016-04-05
2016-01-0753
Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as a Combustion Modifier of Ethanol in Compression Ignition Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2814
Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
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