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Technical Paper

Impact of Electric Loads on Engine Shaft Dynamics within More Electric Aircraft

2015-09-15
2015-01-2409
This paper considers the electromechanical interconnection between the electrical power system of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the shaft connecting the engine to the generator. In order to investigate the coupling between these two systems the effect of an electric load impact on the mechanical system of the MEA will be analysed. In the MEA, many functions traditionally powered by pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical systems will be replaced by the electrical systems. Thus the electrical power rating will be considerably higher than that of a traditional aircraft. With the increase of electrical power, the impact of electrical load on the mechanical system, especially the engine shaft, will become significant. This paper focuses on the study of the interaction between the electrical and mechanical system.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Power Sharing Strategies for the DC Electrical Power System in the MEA

2015-09-15
2015-01-2410
In this paper, the load sharing principles in dc-distribution electric power systems (EPS) for future more-electric aircraft (MEA) are investigated. The study is conducted using a potential MEA EPS architecture with multiple sources feeding into the main dc bus. Corresponding reduced-order EPS models are established. The influence of the cable impedance on the load sharing accuracy is analyzed and sharing error is quantized in mathematical equations. In addition, source/load impedance of the droop-controlled system has been derived leading to the discussion of the stability issues in multi-feed dc EPS under different droop control strategies. The influence of load sharing ratio on the EPS stability margins has been investigated. The theoretical findings were supported by time-domain simulations in Matlab/SimPower.
Technical Paper

Functional Modeling of 18-Pulse Autotransformer Rectifier Units for Aircraft Applications

2015-09-15
2015-01-2412
This paper aims to develop a general functional model of multi-pulse Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units (ATRUs) for More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) applications. The ATRU is seen as the most reliable way readily to be applied in the MEA. Interestingly, there is no model of ATRUs suitable for unbalanced or faulty conditions at the moment. This paper is aimed to fill this gap and develop functional models suitable for both balanced and unbalanced conditions. Using the fact that the DC voltage and current are strongly related to the voltage and current vectors at the AC terminals of ATRUs, a generic functional model has been developed for both symmetric and asymmetric ATRUs. The developed functional models are validated through simulation and experiment. The efficiency of the developed model is also demonstrated by comparing with corresponding detailed switching models. The developed functional model shows significant improvement of simulation efficiency, especially under balanced conditions.
Technical Paper

Towards Self-Adaptive Fixturing Systems for Aircraft Wing Assembly

2015-09-15
2015-01-2493
The aim of this work was to develop a new assembly process in conjunction with an adaptive fixturing system to improve the assembly process capability of specific aircraft wing assembly processes. The inherently complex aerospace industry requires a step change in its capability to achieve the production ramp up required to meet the global demand. This paper evaluates the capability of adaptive fixtures to identify their suitability for implementation into aircraft wing manufacturing and assembly. To understand the potential benefits of these fixtures, an examination of the current academic practices and an evaluation of the existing industrial solutions is highlighted. The proposed adaptive assembly process was developed to account for the manufacturing induced dimensional variation that causes significant issues in aircraft wing assembly. To test the effectiveness of the adaptive assembly process, an aircraft wing assembly operation was replicated on a demonstrator test rig.
Journal Article

Structural Quality Inspection Based on a RGB-D Sensor: Supporting Manual-to-Automated Assembly Operations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2499
The assembly and manufacture of aerospace structures, in particular legacy products, relies in many cases on the skill, or rather the craftsmanship, of a human operator. Compounded by low volume rates, the implementation of a fully automated production facility may not be cost effective. A more efficient solution may be a mixture of both manual and automated operations but herein lies an issue of human error when stepping through the build from a manual operation to an automated one. Hence the requirement for an advanced automated assembly system to contain functionality for inline structural quality checking. Machine vision, used most extensively in manufacturing, is an obvious choice, but existing solutions tend to be application specific with a closed software development architecture.
Journal Article

Reconfigurable Assembly System Design Methodology: A Wing Assembly Case Study

2015-09-15
2015-01-2594
Current assembly systems that deal with large, complex structures present a number of challenges with regard to improving operational performance. Specifically, aerospace assembly systems comprise a vast array of interrelated elements interacting in a myriad of ways, resulting in a deeply complex process that requires a multi-disciplined team of engineers. The current approach to ramp-up production rate involves building additional main assembly fixtures which require large investment and lead times up to 24 months. Within Airbus Operations Ltd there is a requirement to improve the capacity and flexibility of assembly systems, thereby reducing non-recurring costs and time-to-market. Recent trends to improve manufacturing agility advocate Reconfigurable Assembly Systems (RAS) as a viable solution. Yet, adding reconfigurability to assembly systems further increases both the operational and design complexity.
Journal Article

Technology Review of Thermal Forming Techniques for use in Composite Component Manufacture

2015-09-15
2015-01-2610
There is a growing demand for composites to be utilised in the production of large-scale components within the aerospace industry. In particular the demand to increase production rates indicates that traditional manual methods are no longer sufficient, and automated solutions must be sought. This typically leads to automated forming processes where there are a limited number of effective options. The need for forming typically arises from the inability of layup methods to produce complex geometries of structural components. This paper reviews the current state of the art in automated forming processes, their limitations and variables that affect performance in the production of large scale components. In particular the paper will focus on the application of force and heat within secondary forming processes. It will then review the effects of these variables against the structure of the required composite component and identify viability of the technology.
Technical Paper

Review of Turbocharger Mapping and 1D Modelling Inaccuracies with Specific Focus on Two-Stag Systems

2015-09-06
2015-24-2523
The adoption of two stage serial turbochargers in combination with internal combustion engines can improve the overall efficiency of powertrain systems. In conjunction with the increase of engine volumetric efficiency, two stage boosting technologies are capable of improving torque and pedal response of small displacement engines. In two stage sequential systems, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbochargers are packaged in a way that the exhaust gases access the LP turbine after exiting the HP turbine. On the induction side, fresh air is compressed sequentially by LP and HP compressors. The former is able to deliver elevated pressure ratios, but it is not able to highly compressor low flow rates of air. The latter turbo-machine can increase charge pressure at lower mass air flow and be by-passed at high rates of air flow.
Technical Paper

Modelling the Performance of the Torotrak V-Charge Variable Drive Supercharger System on a 1.0L GTDI - Preliminary Simulation Results

2015-09-01
2015-01-1971
A supercharger system which boosts the engine via a direct drive from the engine crankshaft has been identified as a possible solution to improve low-end torque and transient response for a conventional turbocharged SI engine. However, the engine equipped with a fixed-ratio supercharger is not as fuel-efficient especially at high load and low speed due to the fact that a large portion of the intake mass air flow has to recirculate through a bypass valve causing inevitable mechanical and flow losses. In addition, the fixed drive ratio of the supercharger which is mainly determined by the full-load requirements might not be able to provide sufficient over-boost during a transient. The fact that a clutch may be necessary for high engine speed operation on the fixed-ratio supercharger system is another issue from the perspective of cost and NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Explore and Extend the Effectiveness of Turbo-compounding in a 2.0 litres Gasoline Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1279
After years of study and improvement, turbochargers in passenger cars now generally have very high efficiency. This is advantageous, but on the other hand, due to their high efficiency, only a small portion of the exhaust energy is needed for compressing the intake air, which means further utilization of waste heat is restricted. From this point of view, a turbo-compounding arrangement has significant advantage over a turbocharger in converting exhaust energy as it is immune to the upper power demand limit of the compressor. However, with the power turbine being located in series with the main turbine, power losses are incurred due to the higher back pressure which increases the pumping losses. This paper evaluates the effectiveness that the turbo-compounding arrangement has on a 2.0 litres gasoline engine and seeks to draw a conclusion on whether the produced power is sufficient to offset the increased pumping work.
Technical Paper

Modeling of In-Cylinder Soot Particle Size Evolution and Distribution in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1075
The focus of this study is to analyse changes in soot particle size along the predicted pathlines as they pass through different in-cylinder combustion histories obtained from Kiva-3v CFD simulation with a series of Matlab routines. 3500 locations representing soot particles were selected inside the cylinder at 8° CA ATDC as soot was formed in high concentration at this CA. The dominant soot particle size was recorded within the size range of 20-50 nm at earlier CA and shifted to 10-20 nm after 20° CA ATDC. Soot particle quantities reduce sharply until 20° CA ATDC after which they remain steady at around 1500 particles. Soot particles inside the bowl region tend to stick to the bowl walls and those remaining in the bowl experience an increase in size. Soot particles that move to the upper bowl and squish regions were observed to experience a decrease in size.
Technical Paper

More Leaders and Fewer Initiatives: Key Ideas for the Future of Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-0411
Panel Discussions held at the SAE World Congress in both 2013 and 2014 observed that a shortage of good quality engineering talent formed a chronic and major challenge. (“Good quality” refers to applicants that would be shortlisted for interview.) While doubts have been expressed in some quarters, the shortage is confirmed by automotive sector employers and the Panel's view was that it was symptomatic of a range of issues, all of which have some bearing on the future of the profession. Initiatives to improve recruitment and retention have had varying degrees of success. Efforts need to be intensified in primary schools where negative perceptions develop and deepen. Schemes like AWIM that operate on a large scale and are designed to supplement school curricula should operate at an international level. Universities represent the entry point into the engineering profession and their role in the recruitment process as well as education and training is crucial.
Technical Paper

Improving Heat Transfer and Reducing Mass in a Gasoline Piston Using Additive Manufacturing

2015-04-14
2015-01-0505
Pressure and temperature levels within a modern internal combustion engine cylinder have been pushing to the limits of traditional materials and design. These operative conditions are due to the stringent emission and fuel economy standards that are forcing automotive engineers to develop engines with much higher power densities. Thus, downsized, turbocharged engines are an important technology to meet the future demands on transport efficiency. It is well known that within downsized turbocharged gasoline engines, thermal management becomes a vital issue for durability and combustion stability. In order to contribute to the understanding of engine thermal management, a conjugate heat transfer analysis of a downsized gasoline piston engine has been performed. The intent was to study the design possibilities afforded by the use of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process.
Journal Article

SuperGen on Ultraboost: Variable-Speed Centrifugal Supercharging as an Enabling Technology for Extreme Engine Downsizing

2015-04-14
2015-01-1282
The paper discusses investigations into improving the full-load and transient performance of the Ultraboost extreme downsizing engine by the application of the SuperGen variable-speed centrifugal supercharger. Since its output stage speed is decoupled from that of the crankshaft, SuperGen is potentially especially attractive in a compound pressure-charging system. Such systems typically comprise a turbocharger, which is used as the main charging device, compounded at lower charge mass flow rates by a supercharger used as a second boosting stage. Because of its variable drive ratio, SuperGen can be blended in and out continuously to provide seamless driveability, as opposed to the alternative of a clutched, single-drive-ratio positive-displacement device. In this respect its operation is very similar to that of an electrically-driven compressor, although it is voltage agnostic and can supply other hybrid functionality, too.
Technical Paper

A New Turboexpansion Concept in a Twin-Charged Engine System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2596
Engines equipped with pressure charging systems are more prone to knock partly due the increased intake temperature. Meanwhile, turbocharged engines when operating at high engine speeds and loads cannot fully utilize the exhaust energy as the wastegate is opened to prevent overboost. The turboexpansion concept thus is conceived to reduce the intake temperature by utilizing some otherwise unexploited exhaust energy. This concept can be applied to any turbocharged engines equipped with both a compressor and a turbine-like expander on the intake loop. The turbocharging system is designed to achieve maximum utilization of the exhaust energy, from which the intake charge is over-boosted. After the intercooler, the turbine-like expander expands the over-compressed intake charge to the required plenum pressure and reduces its temperature whilst recovering some energy through the connection to the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation on the Influence of In-Cylinder Mixture Distribution from Multiple Pilot Injections on Cold Idle Behaviour of a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2708
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Regulated Two-stage Downsized SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2550
The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Dynamic Performance Prediction by Volterra Series Model

2014-10-13
2014-01-2558
Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations. This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell.
Technical Paper

Empirical Lumped-mass Approach to Modelling Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers

2014-10-13
2014-01-2559
When evaluating the performance of new boosting hardware, it is a challenge to isolate the heat transfer effects inherent within measured turbine and compressor efficiencies. This work documents the construction of a lumped mass turbocharger model in the MatLab Simulink environment capable of predicting turbine and compressor metal and gas outlet temperatures based on measured or simulated inlet conditions. A production turbocharger from a representative 2.2L common rail diesel engine was instrumented to enable accurate gas and wall temperature measurements to be recorded under a variety of engine operating conditions. Initially steady-state testing was undertaken across the engine speed and load range in order that empirical Reynolds-Nusselt heat transfer relationships could be derived and incorporated into the model. Steady state model predictions were validated against further experimental data.
Technical Paper

Application of Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) Approach for the Modeling of Reacting Biodiesel Fuel Spray using OpenFOAM

2014-10-13
2014-01-2565
Modeling the combustion process of a diesel-biodiesel fuel spray in a 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) domain remains challenging and time-consuming despite the recent advancement in computing technologies. Accurate representation of the in-cylinder processes is essential for CFD studies to provide invaluable insights into these events, which are typically limited when using conventional experimental measurement techniques. This is especially true for emerging new fuels such as biodiesels since fundamental understanding of these fuels under combusting environment is still largely unknown. The reported work here is dedicated to evaluating the Adaptive Local Mesh Refinement (ALMR) approach in OpenFOAM® for improved simulation of reacting biodiesel fuel spray. An in-house model for thermo-physical and transport properties is integrated to the code, along with a chemical mechanism comprising 113 species and 399 reactions.
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