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Technical Paper

CAE Considerations in the Modeling of Welded Joints

2005-04-11
2005-01-0512
Welding is one of the most commonly used fabrication method in various automotive applications. Welding is a metallurgical fusion process in which parts or work pieces to be joined are heated above their melting temperature and then solidified. Some of the effects of the welding include residual stresses and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). A methodology is proposed to study the welding process using the commercial finite element software, ABAQUS. Non linear transient heat transfer analysis is used. Effects of heat energy input rate and heat input time on residual stresses and HAZ are determined.
Technical Paper

Reducing Bolt-up Distortion of a Conventional Brake Rotor by Optimization

2005-04-11
2005-01-0793
Although not completely understood, rotor distortion due to bolt-up is an issue commonly found in conventional brake rotor design. In this paper, bolt-up is addressed by utilizing optimization and contact analysis methods. These methods give greater insight to the contributing factors that influence bolt-up distortion. In particular, the optimization method defines the approximate geometric shape required for a brake rotor based on optimizing one or more variables. By utilizing the non-linear contact analysis method, the results from the optimization analysis are validated. In general, the results show that bolt-up distortion is not significantly affected by changing design features, variables or combinations of design features and variables. However, significant improvement in bolt-up distortion is noticed when changes are made to the brake rotor and the wheel bearing hub.
Technical Paper

Automating Instrument Panel Head Impact Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1221
Occupant head impact simulations on automotive instrument panels (IP) are routinely performed as part of an integrated design process during the course of IP development. Based on the requirements (F/CMVSS, ECE), head impact zones on the IP are first established, which are then used to determine the various “hit” locations to be tested/analyzed. Once critical impact locations are identified, CAE simulations performed which is a repetitive process that involves computing impact angles, positioning the rigid head form with an assigned initial velocity and defining suitable contacts within the finite element model. A commercially available CAE process automation tool was used to automate these steps and generate a head impact simulation model. Once the input model is checked for errors by the automated process, it can be submitted to a solver without any user intervention for analysis and report generation.
Technical Paper

Radar-based Target Tracking Method: Application to Real Road

2005-04-11
2005-01-1478
Principle of the target tracking method for the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system, which is applicable to non-uniform or transient condition, had been proposed by one of the authors. This method does not need any other information rather than that from the radar and host vehicle. Here the method is modified to meet more complex traffic scenarios and then applied to data measured on real highway. The modified method is based on the phase chart between the lateral component of the relative velocity and azimuth of a preceding vehicle. From the trace on the chart, the behavior of a preceding vehicle is judged and the discrimination between the lane change and curve-entry/exit can be made. The method can deal with the lane-change of a preceding vehicle on the curve as well as on the straight lane. And it is applied to more than 20 data including several road/vehicle conditions: road is straight, or turns right or left; vehicles are motorbikes, sedans and trucks.
Technical Paper

Inaudible Knock and Partial-Burn Detection Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2003-10-27
2003-01-3149
Internal combustion engines are designed to maximize power subject to meeting exhaust emission requirements and minimizing fuel consumption. Maximizing engine power and fuel economy is limited by engine knock for a given air-to-fuel charge. Therefore, the ability to detect engine knock and run the engine at its knock limit is a key for the best power and fuel economy. This paper shows inaudible knock detection ability using in-cylinder ionization signals over the entire engine speed and load map. This is especially important at high engine speed and high EGR rates. The knock detection ability is compared between three sensors: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure and ionization sensors. The test data shows that the ionization signals can be used to detect inaudible engine knock while the conventional knock sensor cannot under some engine operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Electronics Environmental Testing in Perspective - A Fresh Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-1360
A major part of product development is to validate robustness to the environment (e.g. temperature, vibration, EMC). Although much time and expense is spent doing so, using traditional approaches often leads to “feel good” results since the product “passes”. Such a false sense of security is misleading since such validation methods can have serious deficiencies. Presented is a Design Assurance process (Accelerated Stress Assurance Plan - ASAP) to validate modules that addresses these deficiencies. It places major emphasis on the analysis and development stages. It does not require large sample sizes, and overall test time and facilities is reduced (30-50% possible).. Just as for electronic modules, new and major changes to IC's need a shorter validation process. As an example, a relatively fast procedure for the production and application release of improved molding compounds for IC's is presented.
Technical Paper

Vibration Assessment of a Slip-in-Tube Propshaft Through Correlated Analytical Model

2003-05-05
2003-01-1481
Analytical methods are used extensively in the automotive industry to validate the feasibility of component and assembly designs and their dynamic behavior. Correlation of analytical models with test data is an important step in this process. This paper discusses the Finite Element model of an innovative Slip-in-Tube Propshaft design. The Slip-in-Tube joint (slip joint) poses challenges for its dynamic simulation. This paper discusses the methods of simulating the joint and correlating it to experimental results. Also, the Noise and Vibration (NVH) characteristics of the Slip-in-Tube Propshaft design. In this paper, a Finite Element model of the proposed propshaft is developed using shell and beam element formulations. Each model is verified to optimize the feasibility of using accurate and computationally efficient elements for the dynamic analysis.
Technical Paper

Honeywell's Automotive Door Latch Design is Ideal for Corporate Latch Strategy

2003-03-03
2003-01-1190
In response to consumer demand, automakers are adding more safety, security, and convenience features to vehicle access control systems. Also, in a continuing effort to be more profitable, automakers are reducing costs by outsourcing the design of systems/sub-systems/components, reducing their supply base, and minimizing part numbers by sharing components across several platforms. In an attempt to improve efficiency and productivity, many OEM's have adopted a “corporate latch” strategy, implementing the same latch across several manufacturing platforms and marketing divisions. Honeywell's revolutionary door latch design efficiently and cost effectively addresses vehicle OEMs' current and future requirements for performance and functionality.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Door Slam Test for Plastic Trim Components

2003-03-03
2003-01-1209
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify plastic door trim assemblies under the vehicle door slam Key Life Test (KLT) environments. The CAE Virtual Door Slam Test (VDST) procedure simulates the environment of a whole door structural assembly, as a hinged in-vehicle door slam configuration. It predicts the durability life of a plastic door trim sub-assembly, in terms of the number of slam cycles, based on the simulated stresses and plastic material fatigue damage model, at each critical location. The basic theory, FEA methods and techniques employed by the VDST procedure are briefly described in this paper. Door trim project examples are presented to illustrate the practical applications and their results, as well as the correlation with the physical door slam KLTs.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Passenger Kinetic Energy Absorption During Collision and Role of SECURUS™ Fiber

2003-03-03
2003-01-1226
A new revolutionary fiber (SECURUS™) that is offered by Honeywell to the automotive industry suitable for use in safety belts is able to absorb a passenger's kinetic energy without the passenger being subjected to excessive forces. This paper analyses thoroughly the mechanisms of the energy dissipation during an automotive accident. Such analysis shows the role of the belt and its characteristics in the process of energy dissipation. We have shown that there are two interacting mechanisms: one by the vehicle (energy absorbing elements) and another by the belt itself. We built simple and useful mathematical models of the process and showed quantitatively (using the belts of real characteristics and dimensions) how the remarkable characteristics of SECURUS™ fiber allow the force reduction. In this paper the models are simple enough to keep the major effects transparent to the observer.
Technical Paper

Equations for Physical Properties of Automotive Coolants

2003-03-03
2003-01-0532
1.0 During the warm up process of the coolant in automotive heater systems physical properties such as the density, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity vary with temperature. To conduct any heater analysis, therefore, it is essential that such variations with temperatures be evaluated. In the present paper a comprehensive literature search is conducted for the published physical properties of the automotive coolants ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. The data are analyzed and compared, and equations describing the variation of the above named physical properties with temperature are derived and presented. The effect of the temperature on the internal heat transfer coefficient is discussed. A comparison of the heat transfer performance between the two glycol coolants is presented. The temperature range studied extends from - 35 to at least 125 degree Celsius.
Technical Paper

Smart Structure and Integrated System: Reinforced Nylon and Aluminum Self-Tapping Screws

2002-07-09
2002-01-2030
Previously we reported to SAE 2002 the basic principles in materials selections for the fastening of plastics. In this current paper, we will try to increase the understanding of the automotive community regarding the usefulness and applicability of aluminum made self-tapping screws in the fastening of various thermoplastic components. Utilization of the light alloys for the manufacturing of fasteners for plastic applications allowed us to manage efficiently the stiffness considerations, short- and long-term performance of the assembled plastic components. The results presented in this study will help designers, technologists, thermoplastic and fastener developers and fastener manufacturers, to optimize mechanical performance of assembled automotive components, where self-tapping screws will be used.
Technical Paper

Innovations in Laser Welding of Thermoplastics: This Advanced Technology is Ready to be Commercialized

2002-07-09
2002-01-2011
Previously we reported to the SAE 2000 basics in selection of various colored and un-colored/natural nylon 6 (polyamide - PA 6) based plastics for laser welding technology. Later we presented to Antec1 2001 and to SAE 2002 our developments of colored in black through-transmissible grades of PA 6 plastics, which were specially tailored for the specifics of the design and laser welding technology. In this current paper, we will try to enhance the understanding of the engineering community regarding the usefulness and applicability of laser welding technology, developed colored thermoplastics, and its increasing use in various automotive and transportation applications.
Technical Paper

Motorized Throttle Positioning Simulation Model

2003-03-03
2003-01-0222
A motorized throttle model has been developed in block diagram form (Simulink®). Its primary input is the control signal to the throttle motor's electrical H-driver. The model's primary output is throttle position sensor signal. The model's utility for vehicle and engine simulations is proved with validation data. While a DC motor actuated positioning device is well known, special attention is paid to modeling subtle but significant physical characteristics. Further, the model is structured to overcome numerical simulation issues. The laboratory environment that connects a Powertrain Control Module (PCM) to vehicle powertrain simulation hardware is diagramed. This paper is useful to those modeling this and similar actuators as it points out pitfall avoidance for real time simulation issues. It avoids reliance on difficult-to-measure characteristics that cloud validation validity.
Technical Paper

Driver Steering Performance Using Joystick vs. Steering Wheel Controls

2003-03-03
2003-01-0118
A fixed-base driving simulator with a 14-degree of freedom vehicle dynamics model was used to compare the lane tracking performance of test subjects using a joystick steering controller to that using a conventional steering wheel. Three driving situations were studied: a) straight-line highway driving, b) winding road driving (country road), and c) evasive maneuvering - a double lane change event. In addition, three different joystick force-feedback settings were evaluated: i) linear force feedback, ii) non-linear, speed sensitive force feedback and iii) no force feedback. A conventional steering wheel with typical passenger car force feedback tuning was used for all of the driving events for comparison.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Interior Fittings – A Global View

2003-03-03
2003-01-1175
In today's global economy, the automotive design engineer's responsibilities are made more complex by the differences between regulatory requirements of the various global markets. This paper compares instrument panel head impact requirements of FMVSS 201 with its European counterparts, ECE 21, and EEC/74/60, Interior Fittings. It describes the similarities and differences between these regulations and explains the unique requirements for each market. It then compares processes for development and validation testing in both markets. It also covers related topics like self-certification, witness testing, radii, projections, and interior compartment doors. The cockpit design engineer will gain an understanding of the factors involved in ensuring that their design fully meets the requirements of the subject regulations.
Technical Paper

Occupant Knee Impact Simulations: A Parametric Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-1168
Occupant knee impact simulations are performed in the automotive industry as an integrated design process during the course of instrument panel (IP) development. All major automakers have different categories of dynamic testing methods as part of their design process in validating their designs against the FMVSS 208 requirement. This has given rise to a corresponding number of knee impact simulations performed at various stages of product development. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of various types of these knee impact simulations. Only the knee load requirement portion of the FMVSS208 is considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Reinforcement Challenges and Solutions in Optimized Design of Injection Molded Plastic Parts

2003-03-03
2003-01-1123
The mechanical performance of injection molded glass-fiber reinforced plastic parts is highly anisotropic and depends strongly on the kinetics (orientation and distribution) of the glass-fiber and the part geometry. Similarly, the bulk and local mechanical performance at the ribs, walls and welds is influenced by these glass-fibers and the specific processing technology (including joining) used, as related to melt-flow and melt-pool formation and glass-fiber re-orientation. The purpose of this study is to show: the effect of short glass-fiber orientation at the pre-welded beads, ribs and wall areas for injection molded and subsequently welded parts the short-term mechanical performance of welded butt-joints that have various geometry and thickness, namely “straight” and “T-type” welds.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Maximum Dilution Limit Control using In-Cylinder Ionization Signal

2005-10-24
2005-01-3751
This paper presents a combustion stability index derived from an in-cylinder ionization signal to control the engine maximum EGR limit. Different from the existing approaches that use the ionization signal values to gauge how much EGR was added during the combustion, the proposed method concentrates on using the ionization signal duration and its stochastic properties to evaluate the end result of EGR on combustion stability. When the duration index or indexes are higher than pre-determined values, the EGR limit is set. The dynamometer engine test results have shown promise for closed loop EGR control of spark ignition engines.
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