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Technical Paper

Construction and Application of Near Field (TIR Type) Lenses for Automotive Lighting Functions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1040
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are fast becoming the preferred light sources for automotive lighting applications. They emit light at cone angles equal (hemispherical) or less (conical) than 2Π radians. One way for efficiently collecting and collimating light from LED light sources is to use Near Field Lenses (NFLs). NFLs are collimators using refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) to efficiently collect and direct light. They tend to have thick sections and therefore require challenging molding techniques, and they may have the LED source optically coupled directly into them. Beside these functional aspects, NFLs offer unique styling for different lighting functions such as those in rear combination lamps (RCLs), front turn signal lamps, daytime running lamps (DRLs) and headlamps.
Technical Paper

Towards Development of Thermal Standards for the Design of LED Lamps

2007-04-16
2007-01-1037
Even though the use of LED's in automotive industry is continuously increasing, the test standards used for the thermal design of the lamps do not address the unique needs of LED based lamps. The challenge becomes more significant because LED's are semiconductor devices with lower maximum operating temperatures and photometric properties that depend on temperature. This paper presents sunload test results and lamp thermal data measured on vehicles undergoing simulated driving conditions in a lab environment. The data clearly indicates substantial differences in the measured data versus the test conditions to which the lamps are designed today. It is recommended to modify test standards that the lamps must meet to more closely emulate the field conditions.
Technical Paper

A High Speed Flow Visualization Study of Fuel Spray Pattern Effect on Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1411
In developing a direct injection gasoline engine, the in-cylinder fuel air mixing is key to good performance and emissions. High speed visualization in an optically accessible single cylinder engine for direct injection gasoline engine applications is an effective tool to reveal the fuel spray pattern effect on mixture formation The fuel injectors in this study employ the unique multi-hole turbulence nozzles in a PFI-like (Port Fuel Injection) fuel system architecture specifically developed as a Low Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) fuel injection system. In this study, three injector sprays with a narrow 40° spray angle, a 60°spray angle with 5°offset angle, and a wide 80° spray angle with 10° offset angle were evaluated. Image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the nature of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing and the extent of fuel spray impingement on the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Heat Simulation in Lighting

2007-04-16
2007-01-1388
During last 10-15 years we could have seen quite big changes in automotive lighting. The most important changes are: a) plastic materials mostly removed metal and glass material from lighting products raised heat issue of plastics materials b) escalation of competition between lighting suppliers (globalization, merging, …) decrease of time and cost for development of the new product as much as possible
Technical Paper

Control Method of Dual Motor-Based Steer-by-Wire System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1149
This paper describes a front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuator motors on the rack and pinion assembly to move the road wheels. Dual actuators are used to provide actuator redundancy and to enhance the fault tolerance capability. When one actuator faults or fails, the other actuator is designed to work independently and maintain full system performance. The paper emphasizes control method to implement the motion control for the front road wheel steer-by-wire system with two actuators on the common load. The proposed dual servo synchronization motion control implements the angle tracking for the road wheel reference input by controlling two actuators synchronously and cooperatively. It includes two servo feedback control loops to track the common reference input. The angular position error between two feedback loops is compensated using a synchronized compensator.
Technical Paper

Design Parameter Tradeoffs for LED Headlamp Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0871
High-power LEDs and LED headlamps have become a serious consideration for the automotive industry. White LEDs have achieved the required performance for initial automotive headlamp applications. However tradeoffs among several attributes such as efficiency, cost, weight and performance profoundly affect LED headlamp development and need to be addressed by vehicle manufacturers, lamp set makers and LED source suppliers in order for LED headlamps to be effective. The solutions to these tradeoffs relates to the behavior of the LED sources, the thermo-mechanical integration of LEDs in a headlamp environment and input from the vehicle manufacturer regarding styling and packaging for an LED headlamp on the respective targeted vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Efficient LED Headlamp Design-Styling versus Light Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0874
First LED headlamps will be released into the market in 2007. Special permissions allow this introduction although the official regulation is still under discussion in ECE. The LED technology for front lighting has entered into a new phase from theoretical, prototype status to real and practical applications. Additionally in Europe the legislation, which is under preparation, defines LED modules with one or more LED chips in a row which should be replaceable. With this boundary conditions headlamp suppliers needs to balance between an attractive and innovative styling, demanded by car manufacturers and the light performance to gurantee good visibility at night. The paper describes the methods how to design an LED headlamp with high efficiency by keeping in mind the parameters: packaging, weight, styling and light perfromance. Results with specific design proposals are shown.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Vehicle Steering System NVH from Component-Level Test Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0483
This work demonstrates a practical method for predicting vehicle-level automotive steering system NVH performance from component-level NVH measurements of hydraulic steering pumps. For this method, in-vehicle measurements were completed to quantify vehicle noise path characteristics, including steering system structure borne, fluid borne and airborne paths. At the component level, measurements of steering pump reaction forces, sound power and dynamic hydraulic pressure were also completed. The vehicle-level measurement data was used to construct NVH transfer functions for the vehicle. These transfer functions were in turn combined with the pump component data measured on a test stand to create a prediction for steering pump order vehicle interior noise. The accuracy of these predicted values was assessed through comparison with actual vehicle interior noise measurements.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Tool for Modeling Driveline Systems

2000-12-04
2000-01-3525
In order to facilitate the modeling of vehicle drivelines in ADAMS, an ADAMS/View driveline tool was developed with the aid of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc (MDI). Known as Visteon Axle & Driveline Simulation-Dynamics (VADSIM-DYNA) this tool is used to supply customers with driveline models for use in their full vehicle modeling as well as for predicting forces in the driveline. Of specific interest is a method for calculating the mesh point of a hypoid gear set using the geometry of the ring and pinion gears, and a custom force statement for calculation of the mesh point reactions at the center of gravity for both the pinion and ring gears. With the introduction of ADAMS/Driveline, The comapny has worked with MDI to implement VADSIM-DYNA into the base product. With the aid of VADSIM-DYNA the ability to provide customers with ADAMS models of driveline components and systems has been greatly enhanced.
Technical Paper

A Unique Approach to All-Wheel Drive Vehicle Dynamics Model Simulation and Correlation

2000-12-04
2000-01-3526
Experimental correlation is essential in the development of analytical simulation models. A methodology for correlating an All-Wheel Drive (AWD) minivan, created with ADAMS/Pre is presented in this paper. The paper is developed in three parts. Presented first are detailed component and system level, static and dynamic tests, including tire tests that were performed for inputs to the model. Then, the static correlation of the model, in particular, the front and rear suspension kinematics and compliance correlation are presented. Finally the dynamic correlation of the model, for the constant radius test and the swept steer test, is discussed. The paper concludes with some observations on AWD modeling.
Technical Paper

Electronics Environmental Testing in Perspective - A Fresh Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-1360
A major part of product development is to validate robustness to the environment (e.g. temperature, vibration, EMC). Although much time and expense is spent doing so, using traditional approaches often leads to “feel good” results since the product “passes”. Such a false sense of security is misleading since such validation methods can have serious deficiencies. Presented is a Design Assurance process (Accelerated Stress Assurance Plan - ASAP) to validate modules that addresses these deficiencies. It places major emphasis on the analysis and development stages. It does not require large sample sizes, and overall test time and facilities is reduced (30-50% possible).. Just as for electronic modules, new and major changes to IC's need a shorter validation process. As an example, a relatively fast procedure for the production and application release of improved molding compounds for IC's is presented.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Control Algorithm for a Yaw Stability Management System

2003-03-03
2003-01-1284
Generalized predictive control (GPC) is a discrete time control strategy proposed by Clark et al [1]. The controller tries to predict the future output of a system or plant and then takes control action at present time based on future output error. Such a predictive control algorithm is presented in this paper for yaw stability management of an automobile. Most of the existing literature on the yaw stability management systems lacks the insight into the yaw rate error growth when the automobile is in a understeer or oversteer condition on a low friction coefficient surface in a handling maneuver. Simulation results show that the predictive feature of the proposed controller provides an effective way to control the yaw stability of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Door Slam Test for Plastic Trim Components

2003-03-03
2003-01-1209
Visteon has developed a CAE procedure to qualify plastic door trim assemblies under the vehicle door slam Key Life Test (KLT) environments. The CAE Virtual Door Slam Test (VDST) procedure simulates the environment of a whole door structural assembly, as a hinged in-vehicle door slam configuration. It predicts the durability life of a plastic door trim sub-assembly, in terms of the number of slam cycles, based on the simulated stresses and plastic material fatigue damage model, at each critical location. The basic theory, FEA methods and techniques employed by the VDST procedure are briefly described in this paper. Door trim project examples are presented to illustrate the practical applications and their results, as well as the correlation with the physical door slam KLTs.
Technical Paper

Occupant Knee Impact Simulations: A Parametric Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-1168
Occupant knee impact simulations are performed in the automotive industry as an integrated design process during the course of instrument panel (IP) development. All major automakers have different categories of dynamic testing methods as part of their design process in validating their designs against the FMVSS 208 requirement. This has given rise to a corresponding number of knee impact simulations performed at various stages of product development. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of various types of these knee impact simulations. Only the knee load requirement portion of the FMVSS208 is considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling and Radiated Noise Prediction for Plastic Air-Intake Manifolds

2003-05-05
2003-01-1448
Reliable prediction of the radiated noise due to the air pressure pulsation inside air-intake manifolds (AIM) is of significant interest in the automotive industry. A practical methodology to model plastic AIMs and a prediction process to compute the radiated noise are presented in this paper. The measured pressure at the engine inlet valve of an AIM is applied as excitation on an acoustic boundary element model of the AIM in order to perform a frequency response analysis. The measured air pressure pulsation is obtained in the crank-angle domain. This pressure is read into MATLAB and transformed into the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform. The normal modes of the structure are computed in ABAQUS and a coupled analysis in SYSNOISE is launched to couple the boundary element model and the finite element model of the structure. The computed surface vibration constitutes the excitation for an acoustic uncoupled boundary element analysis.
Technical Paper

Application of DOE Methods to RPM-Domain Data for Hydraulic Steering Pump NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1431
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and optimization of a hydraulic steering pump for NVH performance. DOE methods were applied to RPM-domain data to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors, on pump NVH. Whereas most DOE analyses typically consider only a single response variable, the present work considered multiple response variables. Specifically, pump NVH performance curves for several pump rotational orders over a range of shaft speeds were analyzed. Thus, it was possible to determine the effect of the factors in question over the entire speed range of pump operation, rather than a single speed or setting. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump NVH. These factors were used to construct an empirical mathematical prediction model for NVH performance.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump Sound Quality and Vibration - Test Stand Development

2003-05-05
2003-01-1662
The quietness of the interior of automobiles is perceived by consumers as a measure of quality and luxury. Great strides have been achieved in isolating interiors from noise sources. As noise is reduced, in particular wind and power train noise, other noise sources become evident. Noise reduction efforts are now focused on components like power steering pumps. To understand the contribution of power steering pumps a world-class noise and vibration test stand was developed. This paper describes the development of the test stand as well as it's objective to understand and improve the sound quality of power steering pumps.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study of Computational Techniques to Model Engine Air Induction System Response Including BEM, FEM and 1D Methods

2003-05-05
2003-01-1644
Induction noise, which radiates from the open end of the engine air induction system, can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound to meet customer expectations. This makes understanding the source noise critical to the development of the air induction system and the vehicle interior sound quality. Given the ever-decreasing development times, it is highly desirable to use computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools to accelerate this process. Many tools are available to simulate induction noise or, more generally, duct acoustics. The tools vary in degrees of complexity and inherent assumptions. Three-dimensional tools will account for the most general of geometries. However, it is also possible to model the duct acoustics with quasi-three-dimensional or one-dimensional tools, which may be faster as well.
Technical Paper

An Approach for the Optical Design of an LED Fog Lamp

2004-03-08
2004-01-0226
Traditionally fog lamps use halogen filament light sources. With the emergence of high brightness white LEDs, it is now possible to develop automotive forward lighting systems with LED light sources. Six LEDs are shown to be sufficient for the implementation of a European fog lamp using a faceted reflector optical approach. Each reflector together with the LED light source forms a modular element. The optical parameters of two different lamp designs are compared and correlation between the simulation and prototype measurements is shown. Further, additional forward lighting functions can be implemented through the use of additional elements.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuel Efficient Multipurpose 75W-90 Gear Lubricant

2003-10-27
2003-01-1992
Automotive gear oil development has expanded beyond the historical requirements of emphasizing wear protection to encompass modern needs for fuel economy and limited slip frictional properties. This paper describes the development process of a new generation, fuel efficient gear lubricant for use in light duty vehicles. A systematic formulation approach was used, encompassing fluid viscometrics and additive optimization. Performance testing in both laboratory and vehicle tests is described. Though standard GL-5 tests were used to confirm oxidation, wear and corrosion performance, emphasis is given to those methods used for optimizing fuel economy.
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