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Technical Paper

SMART Catalyst Development Approach Applied to Automotive Diesel Application

Strategic Materials at Reaction Temperatures (SMART) is an approach used to design washcoat systems for passive 4-way emission control catalysts. Light duty diesel vehicles need to meet the European Motor Vehicle Emissions Group (MVEG) cycle or U. S. Federal test procedure (FTP 75). Emissions that are monitored include hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and total particulate matter (TPM). Low engine-exhaust temperatures (< 200°C during city driving) and high temperatures (> 500-800°C under full load and wide-open throttle) make emission control a formidable task for the catalyst designer Gas phase HC, CO and NOx reactions must be balanced with the removal of the soluble organic fraction for the vehicle to be in compliance with regulations. The SMART approach uses model gases under typical operating conditions in the laboratory to better understand the function of individual washcoat components.
Technical Paper

The New Diesel Engine in the New Beetle

With the introduction of the New Beetle, Volkswagen is offering the next generation of the 1.9l TDI engine. Several evolutionary changes have been made to the TDI concept to further improve its emissions, efficiency and performance. Emissions performance is improved with increased fuel injection pressure, optimized fuel injectors, calibration modifications, EGR cooling and reduced crevice volume in the combustion chamber. Efficiency is improved with new oil pump, vacuum pump and water pump drive systems and the elimination of an auxiliary driveshaft. Performance and efficiency is improved with the addition of a variable geometry turbocharger, which increases torque at lower engine speeds while preserving performance at higher engine speeds. This paper describes the many enhancements found in this latest generation TDI and gives a brief lookout to the future trends in diesel engine development such as a high pressure injection system with unit injectors.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Analysis of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine for Different EGR-Rates by an Extinction Method

The formation of soot during the first phase and the oxidation of soot during the later phase of the combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine have been investigated in detail by an extinction method. The experiments were performed in a 1.9 l near-production high-speed four-cylinder in-line direct-injection diesel engine for passenger cars for different rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and for different fuels. The measurements result in crank angle resolved and cycle-averaged soot mass concentrations in the piston bowl and the combustion chamber. The results show that with increasing EGR-rates the amount of soot formed is increased only slightly but the amount of soot oxidized during combustion decreases significantly. This is assumed to be the main reason for the increase of soot in the exhaust gas with increasing EGR-rates.
Technical Paper

Vapor/Liquid Visualization with Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence in an SI-Engine for Different Fuel Injection Timings

Laser-induced exciplex fluorescence has been applied to the mixture formation process in the combustion chamber of an optically-accessible four-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine in order to distinguish between liquid and vapor fuel distribution during the intake and compression stroke for different injection timings. The naphthalene/N,N,N′N′-tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine (TMPD) exciplex system excited at 308nm with a broadband XeCl excimer laser is used to obtain spectrally-separated, single-shot fluorescence images of the liquid or vapor phase of the fuel. For different timings of the fuel injector this technique is applied to obtain crank-angle-resolved images of the resulting mixture in the combustion chamber. The fluorescence light is detected with an intensified slow-scan CCD-camera equipped with appropriate filters.