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Technical Paper

A Study of Emissions from CNG and Diesel Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles

The West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was employed to conduct chassis dynamometer tests in the field to measure the exhaust emissions from heavy-duty buses and trucks. This laboratory began operation in the field in January, 1992. During the period January, 1992 through June, 1993, over 150 city buses, trucks, and tractors operated by 18 different authorities in 11 states were tested by the facility. The tested vehicles were powered by 14 different types of engines fueled with natural gas (CNG or LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), #2 diesel, and low sulfur diesel (#1 diesel or Jet A). Some of the tested vehicles were equipped with exhaust after-treatment systems. In this paper, a total of 12 CNG-fueled and #2 diesel-fueled transit buses equipped with Cummins L-10 engines, were chosen for investigation.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study Between Two Heavy-Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Facilities

A correlation study of vehicle exhaust emissions measurements was conducted by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) Emissions Testing Facility. A diesel fueled transit bus was tested by both chassis dynamometer emissions testing laboratories. Exhaust emissions were sampled from the tested vehicle during the operation of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Central Business District (CBD) testing cycle. Data of gaseous and particulate matter emissions was obtained at each testing laboratory. The emissions results were compared to evaluate the effects of different equipment, test procedures, and drivers on the measurements of exhaust emissions of heavy-duty vehicles operated on a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from In-Use Heavy Duty Vehicles Tested on a Transportable Transient Chassis Dynamometer

Exhaust gas composition and particulate matter emission levels were obtained from in-use heavy duty transit buses powered by 6V-92TA engines with different fuels. Vehicles discussed in this study were pulled out of revenue service for a day, in Phoenix, AZ, Pittsburgh, PA and New York, NY and tested on the Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory employing a transient chassis dynamometer. All the vehicles, with engine model years ranging from 1982 to 1992, were operated on the Federal Transit Administration Central Business District Cycle. Significant reductions in particulate matter emissions were observed in the 1990-1992 model year vehicles equipped with the trap oxidizer systems. Testing vehicles under conditions that represent “real world” situations confirmed the fact brought to light that emission levels are highly dependent upon the maintenance and operating conditions of the engines.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Energy Consumption by a Chassis Dynamometer

The federal emission standards for heavy duty vehicle engines require the exhaust emissions to be measured and calculated in unit form as grams per break horse-power-hour (g/bhp-hr). Correct emission results not only depend on the precise emission measurement but also rely on the correct determination of vehicle energy consumption. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratory (THDVETL) designed and constructed at West Virginia University provides accurate vehicle emissions measurements in grams over a test cycle. This paper contributes a method for measuring the energy consumption (bhp-hr) over the test cycle by a chassis dynamometer. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results show that an acceptable agreement is reached and that the THDVETL provides accurate responses as the vehicle is operated under transient loads and speeds. This testing laboratory will have particular value in comparing the behavior of vehicles operating on alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

Respirable Particulate Genotoxicant Distribution in Diesel Exhaust and Mine Atmospheres

Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.
Technical Paper

In-Use Emissions and Performance Monitoring of Heavy Duty Vehicles Using a Transportable Transient Chassis Test Facility

Regulated gaseous and particulate emissions were obtained from in-use vehicles, two trucks and two buses, operated on the Transportable Heavy Duty Engine Emissions Testing Laboratory. Presented here is the data on transient emissions from a refuse truck with a Cummins LTA10-260 engine, a GMC tractor with a CAT 3176 engine and two buses with Detroit Diesel 6V-92TA engines (one with a particulate trap and the other without) when tested on different fuels. The reported study on in-use heavy duty vehicles is part of an on-going program aimed at establishing a database on the exhaust emissions from vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer under conditions that represent the ‘real-world’ situations. The paper also discusses, briefly, the entire testing laboratory. The Transportable Laboratory can be effectively used in testing programs, such as recall, deterioration and emission factors.
Technical Paper

Analysis of RF Corona Discharge Plasma Ignition

Corona discharge from a RF quarter wave coaxial cavity resonator is considered as a plasma ignition source for spark ignited (SI) internal combustion (IC) engines. The gaseous discharge processes associated with this device are analyzed using principles of gas kinetics and gaseous electronics, with assumed values for the electric field strength. Corona discharge occurs when the electric field shaped and concentrated by a single electrode exceeds the breakdown potential of the surrounding gas. Ambient electrons, naturally present due to ionizing radiation, drift in the direction of the externally applied field, gaining energy while undergoing elastic collisions with neutral molecules. After gaining sufficient energy they dissociate, excite, or ionize the neutral particles through inelastic collision, creating additional electrons. This process leads to avalanche electrical breakdown of the gas within about 10-8 sec.
Technical Paper

Solid State Electrochemical Cell for NOx Reduction

An electrochemical cell is presented which reduces NOx emissions from a vehicle fueled by dedicated natural gas. The cell is comprised of a honeycomb shaped ceramic which is chemically coated with an electrically conductive material in two distinct regions which serve as electrodes such that, with the application of a voltage potential, a cathode and anode are formed. As the exhaust gas flows through the inner channels of the cell, the electrochemical reduction of NOx at the cathode yields nitrogen gas and oxide ions. The nitrogen continues to flow through the cell while the oxide ions dissolve in the solid electrolyte. At the anodic zone, oxide ions are converted to oxygen gas. The pressure drop across the cell was experimentally measured to insure that the back pressure created by the cell does not create a significant reduction in the efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Stiller-Smith Engine-The Dewelopment of a New Environment for High-Tech Materials

New high-tech materials which are anticipated to revolutionize the internal combustion engine are being created everyday. However, their actual utilization in existing engines has encountered numerous stumbling blocks. High piston sidewall forces and thermal stresses are some of the problems of primary concern. The Stiller-Smith Engine should provide an environment more conducive to the use of some of these materials. Absent from the Stiller-Smith Engine is a crankshaft, and thus a very different motion is observed. Since all parts in the Stiller-Smith Engine move in either linear or rotary fashion it is simple to balance. Additionally the use of linear connecting rod bearings changes the location of the sidewall forces thus providing an isolated combustion chamber more tolerant to brittle materials and potential adiabatic designs. Presented herein is the development of this new engine environment, from conceptualization to an outline of present and future research.
Technical Paper

The Stiller-Smith Mechanism: A Kinematic Analysis

The Stiller-Smith Mechanism provides a unique approach in the use of the rotational characteristics of the cross-slider link of the elliptic trammel. Establishment of the research need and a historical development of the design concept are presented complete with a detailed kinematic analysis. Successful incorporation of the new mechanism is pictorially presented.