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Technical Paper

Measurement Delays and Modal Analysis for a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory

Concern over atmospheric pollution has led to the development of testing procedures to evaluate the hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions from internal combustion engines. In order to perform emissions testing on vehicles, a chassis dynamometer capable of simulating expected driving conditions must be employed. West Virginia University has developed a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory to perform chassis testing on trucks and buses. Emissions from the vehicle are monitored and recorded over the duration of a testing schedule. Usually the vehicle emissions from the whole test are reported as mass of emissions per unit distance driven. However, there is interest in relating the instantaneous emissions to the immediate conditions at specific points in the test, and in determining the emissions for discrete segments of the test (modal analysis).
Technical Paper

Sampling Strategies for Characterization of the Reactive Components of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions

Techniques have been developed to sample and speciate dilute heavy duty diesel exhaust to determine the specific reactivities and the ozone forming potential. While the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) has conducted a comprehensive investigation to develop data on potential improvements in vehicle emissions and air quality from reformulated gasoline and various other alternative fuels. However, the development of sampling protocols and speciation of heavy duty diesel exhaust is still in its infancy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. This paper focuses on the first phase of the heavy duty diesel speciation program, that involves the development of a unique set of sampling protocols for the gas phase, semi-volatile and particulate matter from the exhaust of engines operating on different types of diesel fuel. Effects of sampling trains, sampling temperatures, semi-volatile adsorbents and driving cycles are being investigated.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study of Laminated Composite Shells with Environmental Effects, Using a Higher-Order FE Model

In this study a higher-order shear deformable, analytical model is developed to analyze composite shells with parametric modeling capabilities. The material and geometric properties and loading conditions can be varied as parameters which satisfy a set of constraints to allow the designer to achieve a sensible and computationally feasible FE model. The formulation is derived with equal emphasis on all the six strain as well as stress components at a generic point in the shell laminate. Unlike many other available models which violates the equilibrium conditions at lamina interfaces, this model satisfies the equilibrium conditions at the lamina interfaces for a certain class (angle-ply and unidirectional orthotropic) of laminates.
Technical Paper

An Elasticity Solution of Angle-Ply Laminated Composite Shells Based on a Higher-Order FE Analysis

In the case of advanced light weight material applications, the design of such components, in many cases, are based on applied surface tractions These surface loads can be caused by various means. When wind effects are present these tractions can be due to pressure, suction or drag. In the case of underwater applications, hydrostatic pressure and friction caused by moving against water current needs to be considered in the design. These are some of the traction load applications, a design engineer has to deal with in his advanced material applications. In contrast to the conventional materials, the modern structures made of highly directional dependent material properties, respond the applied loads and environment in an unpredicted way, so that, a detail analysis and design is always necessary. Hence in the present study a higher-order shear deformation formulation is developed to calculate the distribution of stresses accurately in angle-ply laminated shells of revolution.
Technical Paper

Engineering Modeling and Synthesis of a Rand Cam Engine Through CAD Parametric Techniques

In this paper an approach is presented for the system parameterization and synthesis of a Rand-Cam® Engine configuration based on an axial-cylindrical cam driven mechanism. This engine consists of a stationary axial-cylindrical cam on which axially moving pistons (vanes) sweep around the cam as they are driven by the rotor, providing the volume displacement as the rotor delivers the rotary output torque directly to the shaft. It has been documented that this engine configuration has some unique features that make it particularly suitable for high power to weight ratio applications. The modeling strategy makes use of higher order curve and surface modeling techniques and object modeling approaches based on profile extruding, blending operations and constructive solid geometry. Some of the resulting models are further used for finite element engineering analysis through a programmatic logic built into the parameterized general model.
Technical Paper

Respirable Particulate Genotoxicant Distribution in Diesel Exhaust and Mine Atmospheres

Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.
Technical Paper

Analysis of RF Corona Discharge Plasma Ignition

Corona discharge from a RF quarter wave coaxial cavity resonator is considered as a plasma ignition source for spark ignited (SI) internal combustion (IC) engines. The gaseous discharge processes associated with this device are analyzed using principles of gas kinetics and gaseous electronics, with assumed values for the electric field strength. Corona discharge occurs when the electric field shaped and concentrated by a single electrode exceeds the breakdown potential of the surrounding gas. Ambient electrons, naturally present due to ionizing radiation, drift in the direction of the externally applied field, gaining energy while undergoing elastic collisions with neutral molecules. After gaining sufficient energy they dissociate, excite, or ionize the neutral particles through inelastic collision, creating additional electrons. This process leads to avalanche electrical breakdown of the gas within about 10-8 sec.
Technical Paper

Solid State Electrochemical Cell for NOx Reduction

An electrochemical cell is presented which reduces NOx emissions from a vehicle fueled by dedicated natural gas. The cell is comprised of a honeycomb shaped ceramic which is chemically coated with an electrically conductive material in two distinct regions which serve as electrodes such that, with the application of a voltage potential, a cathode and anode are formed. As the exhaust gas flows through the inner channels of the cell, the electrochemical reduction of NOx at the cathode yields nitrogen gas and oxide ions. The nitrogen continues to flow through the cell while the oxide ions dissolve in the solid electrolyte. At the anodic zone, oxide ions are converted to oxygen gas. The pressure drop across the cell was experimentally measured to insure that the back pressure created by the cell does not create a significant reduction in the efficiency of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Stiller-Smith Engine: Floating Gear Analysis

The Stiller-Smith Engine employs a non-standard gear train and as such requires a closer examination of the design and sizing of the gears. To accomplish this the motion of the Stiller-Smith gear train -will be compared to more familiar arrangements. The results of a kinematic and dynamic analysis will introduce the irregular forces that the gears are subjected to. The “floating” or “trammel” gear will be examined more closely, first stochastically and then with finite element analysis. This will pinpoint high stress concentrations on the gear and where they occur during the engine cycle, The configuration considered will be one with: an output shaft, negligible idler gear forces, and floating gear pins that are part of the connecting rods rather than the floating gear. Various loading techniques will be discussed with possible ramifications of each.