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Technical Paper

Fuel-Efficient Driving for Motor Vehicles Based on Slope Recognition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0037
The drivers' hysteretic perception to surrounding environment will affect vehicular fuel economy, especially for the heavy-duty vehicles driving under complex conditions and long distance in mountainous areas. Unreasonable acceleration or deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and the transmission system has limited energy saving potential, and most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. The main purpose of this research is to introduce an economic driving scheme with consideration of the prestored slope information in which the vehicle speed in mountainous slopes is reasonably planned to guide the driver's behavior for reduction of the fuel consumption. Economic driving optimization algorithm with low space dimension and fast computation speed is established to plan accurate and real-time economic driving scheme.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effects of Hot EGR on the Operation of Natural Gas Engine Ignited by Diesel-Butanol Blends

2017-03-28
2017-01-0760
Butanol, which is a renewable biofuel, has been regarded as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. When blended with diesel and applied to pilot ignited natural gas engines, butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency. However, high blend ratio of butanol is limited by its longer ignition delay caused by the higher latent heat and higher octane number, which restricts the improvement of emission characteristics. In this paper, the potential of increasing butanol blend ratio by adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is investigated. 3D CFD model based on a detailed kinetic mechanism was built and validated by experimental results of natural gas engine ignited by diesel/butanol blends. The effects of hot EGR is then revealed by the simulation results of the combustion process, heat release traces and also the emissions under different diesel/butanol blend ratios.
Technical Paper

The TEG Hot-End Heat Capacity’s Effect on the Power Output Stability for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy

2017-03-28
2017-01-0160
While the car ownership increasing all over the world, the unutilized thermal energy in automobile exhaust system is gradually being realized and valued by researchers around the world for better driving energy efficiency. For the unexpected urban traffic, the frequent start and stop processes as well as the acceleration and deceleration lead to the temperature fluctuation of the exhaust gas, which means the unstable hot-end temperature of the thermoelectric module generator (TEG). By arranging the heat conduction oil circulation at the hot end, the hot-end temperature’s fluctuation of the TEG can be effectively reduced, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply for the circulation. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material(SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, none energy consumption and light weight.
Journal Article

Investigation of Deposits in Urea-SCR System Based on Vehicle Road Test

2017-03-14
2017-01-9275
In vehicles with urea-SCR system, normal operation of the urea-SCR system and engine will be influenced if there are deposits appearing on exhaust pipe wall. In this paper, a commercial vehicle is employed to study the influence factors of deposits through the vehicle road test. The results show that, urea injection rate, temperature and flow field have impacts on the formation of deposits. When decreasing the urea injection rate of calibration status by 20%, the deposit yield would reduce by 32%. If the ambient temperature decreased from 36 °C to 26 °C, the deposit yield would increase by 95%. After optimizing the exhaust pipe downstream of the urea injector by removing the step surface, only a few flow marks of urea droplets are observed on the pipe wall, and no lumps of deposits existing.
Technical Paper

Research on Transmission Efficiency of Mechanical Transmission Based on Test Bench

2016-10-17
2016-01-2356
This paper mainly researches transmission efficiency (TE) of mechanical transmission in relation to the temperature of lubricating oil. Firstly the formula of TE is calculated about the kinematic viscosity of lubricating oil, then analyze the relationship between kinematic viscosity and temperature of lubricating oil, and finally the formula of TE which is related to the oil temperature is put forward. In order to verify the theoretical formula, the test bench for mechanical transmission is designed, which is used to research the N109 transmission of one mini car. The bench can be used to measure the curve of TE under different speed , load and lubricating oil temperature. The optimum operating temperature of the transmission is obtained by analyzing the measured data and theoretical calculation results. The test bench adopts 2 AC asynchronous motors to respectively simulate the driving and load performance of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Study of Gasoline Engine Exhaust Manifold Based on Weak Coupling of CFD and FE

2016-10-17
2016-01-2350
This paper combines fluid software STAR-CCM+ and finite element software ABAQUS to solve the temperature field of this Gasoline engine exhaust manifold based on loose coupling method. Through the simulation of car parking cooling - full load condition at full speed, we estimate thermal fatigue life of the exhaust manifold with the plastic strain increment as the evaluation parameters. It can guide the direction of optimal design of the exhaust manifold. Here we also revealed how the bolt force affects the manifold elastic and plastic behavior.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Mg2Si1-xSnx Thermoelectric Materials

2016-10-17
2016-01-2161
In this research, the Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric material is used in the exhaust temperature difference power-generating system, and the material's heat transfer characteristic and power-generating characteristic were analyzed. Firstly, steady heat transfer model from vehicle exhaust to cooling water was established. Then the impact of Sn/Si ratio to the thermoelectric characteristic parameter was analyzed. Finally, considering the influence of varying thermal conductivity to the heat transfer process along the material's heat transfer direction, when the cold end temperature of thermoelectric materials was controlled by cooling water respectively boiling at 343K and 373K, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency and power output of Mg2Si1-xSnx thermoelectric materials with different x value were evaluated based on simulation calculation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Hydraulic Retarder Waste Heat Recovery Based on the Organic Rankine Cycle

2016-09-27
2016-01-8079
The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device. With merits such as its high braking torque, smooth braking, low noise, long service life and small size, it is widely used on modern commercial vehicles. Transmission fluid of traditional hydraulic retarder is cooled by engine cooling system, which exhausts the heat directly and need additional energy consumption for the thermal management component. On account of the working characteristics of hydraulic retarder, this study designs a set of waste heat recovery system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Under the premise of ensuring stable performance of hydraulic retarder, waste heat energy in transmission fluid is recycled to supplement energy requirements for cooling system. First of all, a principle model, which is scaled down according to D300 retarder`s thermal power generation ration of 1:100, is established. Then through theoretical calculations, components' structural parameters of the ORC are determined.
Technical Paper

Pressure Control Method of Hydraulic Retarder Working Chamber

2016-09-27
2016-01-8119
In order to overcome hysteresis and dead zone problems caused by friction for the proportional solenoid valve, and improve rapidity and stability of the pneumatic system on hydraulic retarder, a closed-loop control strategy based on valve coil current was proposed. The high-frequency low-amplitude dither signal was introduced into the proportional solenoid valve. With the proper dither signal, the stick-slip motion of the valve core was transformed into a steady one, and its dynamic performance was improved. Consequently, response time of retarder was reduced during gear changing. The proportional valve coil current was measured as a feedback for a closed-loop control strategy. Combining with the closed-loop strategy, the PI control algorithm was adopted to make sure that valve current was in accordance with the target value. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal was used for the driving of proportional solenoid valve.
Technical Paper

The Energy Saving of Cooling Fan with Electro-Hydraulic Motors Based on Fuzzy Control

2016-09-27
2016-01-8117
The cooling system with two fans is generally driven by electrical motors in the small cars. Compared with the traditional cars, heavy duty trucks have the larger heat dissipation power of cooling system. The motors power consumption of dual fans will be larger and the two electrical motors will occupy a large space in the engine cabin. Hydrostatic drive refers to the cooling fan is driven by hydraulic motor, but it has the low transmission efficiency. According to the engine water temperature value and the actual working status of the hydraulic system, the actual speed of cooling fan can be controlled by the computer, which guarantees the normal working water temperature of the engine. Hydrostatic drive is generally applied to heavy vehicles, engineering machinery and excavators as driving source of cooling fan which contains the advantages of large output power, overload protection, continuous speed regulation and flexible space arrangements.
Technical Paper

Driving Path Planning System under Vehicular Active Safety Constraint

2016-09-27
2016-01-8105
Path planning system, which is one of driver assistance systems, can calculate the driving paths and estimate the driving time through the road information provided by information source. Traditional path planning systems calculate the driving paths through Dijsktra's algorithm or A* algorithm but only consider the road information from electronic maps. It is not safe enough for operating vehicles because of the insufficient information of vehicle performance as well as the driver's willingness. This study is based on the Dijsktra's algorithm, which comprehensively considered vehicular active safety constraints such as road information, vehicle performance and the driver's willingness to optimize the Dijsktra's algorithm. Then the path planning system can calculate the optimal driving paths that would satisfy the safety requirement of the vehicle. This study used LabVIEW as a visual host computer and MATLAB to calculate dynamic property of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Research on the Temperature Control Stability of Hydraulic Retarder Oil Based on Organic Rankine Cycle

2016-09-27
2016-01-8085
The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device generally equipped on commercial vehicles. Its oil temperature change influences the brake performance of hydraulic retarder. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a good means to recover exhausted heat. Moreover, it can cool oil and stably control oil temperature with the help of heat absorption related with evaporation. Comprehensively considering the heat-producing characteristics of hydraulic retarder and the temperature control demand, the aimed boundary conditions are determined. Also the changing rules about the working medium flow rate are obtained. In this work, the heat-producing properties of hydraulic retarder under different conditions and the oil external circulating performance is firstly analyzed. By researching the system’s adaptation to the limiting conditions, the aimed temperature to control is prescribed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pressure Control for an Electro Hydraulic Brake System on RCP Test Environment

2016-09-18
2016-01-1954
In this paper a new pressure control method of a modified accumulator-type Electro-hydraulic Braking System (EHB) is proposed. The system is composed of a hydraulic motor pump, an accumulator, an integrated master cylinder, a pedal feel simulator, valves and pipelines. Two pressurizing modes are switched between by-motor and by-accumulator to adapt different pressure boost demands. A differentiator filtering raw sensor signal and calculating pedal speed is designed. By using the pedal feel simulator, the relationship between wheel pressures and brake force is decoupled. The relationships among pedal displacement, pedal force and wheel pressure are calibrated by experiments. A model-based PI controller with predictor is designed to lower the influences caused by delay. Moreover, a self-tuning regulator is introduced to deal with the parameter’s time-varying caused by temperature, brake pads wearing and delay variation.
Technical Paper

Study on Commercial Vehicle ECR Thermal Management System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1935
With the continuous increasing requirements of commercial vehicle weight and speed on highway transportation, conventional friction brake is difficult to meet the braking performance. To ensure the driving safety of the vehicle in the hilly region, the eddy current retarder (ECR) has been widely used due to its fast response, lower prices and convenient installation. ECR brakes the vehicle through the electromagnetic force generated by the current, and converted vehicle mechanical energy into heat through magnetic field. Air cooling structure is often used in the traditional ECR and cooling performance is limited, which causes low braking torque, thermal recession, and low reliability and so on. The water jacket has been equipped outside the eddy current region in this study, and the electric ECR is cooled through the water circulating in the circuit, which prolongs its working time.
Technical Paper

Research on Matching for the Rankine Cycle Evaporate-condensate System of Hydraulic Retarder

2016-09-18
2016-01-1938
The hydraulic retarder is an auxiliary braking device used for commercial vehicle in a long slope brake, and its transmission oil generates a lot of heat in its working process. If the heat of transmission doesn’t go through a reasonable management, it will seriously affect the braking performance of hydraulic retarder. To cool down the transmission oil, it will aggravates the load of the engine cooling system, and the long cooling path sometimes causes heat exchange not timely. When the Rankine cycle is used for cooling the hydraulic retarder transmission oil in virtue of its good heat transfer performance in phase change process, it can make the transmission oil temperature controlled more stable. In this new system, the setting parameters of the Evaporate-condensate system will affect the stability of the transmission oil temperature in the hydraulic retarder inlet and the energy recovery efficiency of the system.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Analysis of Vehicle Hydraulic Retarder Thermal Management System Based on Rankine Cycle

2016-09-18
2016-01-1941
Vehicle hydraulic retarders are applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling systems of hydraulic retarders, the working fluid is introduced into the heat exchanger to transfer heat to the cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by the engine cooling system. This prevents the waste heat of the working fluid from being used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle, the organic working fluid first transfers heat with the hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of the engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of the hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
Journal Article

Prediction of Lithium-ion Battery's Remaining Useful Life Based on Relevance Vector Machine

2016-05-01
2015-01-9147
In the field of Electric Vehicle (EV), what the driver is most concerned with is that whether the value of the battery's capacity is less than the failure threshold because of the degradation. And the failure threshold means instability of the battery, which is of great danger for drives and passengers. So the capacity is an important indicator to monitor the state of health (SOH) of the battery. In laboratory environment, standard performance tests can be carried out to collect a number of related data, which are available for regression prediction in practical application, such as the on-board battery pack. Firstly, we make use of the NASA battery data set to form the observed data sequence for regression prediction. And a practical method is proposed to determine the minimum embedding dimension and get the recurrence formula, with which a capacity model is built.
Technical Paper

The Selection of Working Fluid Used in the Organic Rankine Cycle System for Hydraulic Retarder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0187
With the improvement of occupants’ awareness on the driving safety, hydraulic retarder applications increase quickly. The traditional hydraulic retarder, on the one hand, exhausts the waste heat of transmission oil by the engine cooling system; on the other hand, the engine power should be consumed to drive the water pump and the engine cooling fan for maintaining the normal operation of the auxiliary braking system. In this study, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) instead of the traditional hydraulic retarder water-cooling system is applied to achieve the effective temperature control of the hydraulic retarder, while the waste heat of transmission oil could be recovered for saving vehicle energy consumption. The ORC fluid selection needs comprehensive consideration for the net power of the ORC and the optimal temperature range of the retarder transmission oil at both the inlet and outlet end, which is the key issue to ensure the stability and efficiency of the ORC system performance.
Technical Paper

Effects Analysis and Modeling of Different Transmission Running Conditions for Transmission Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-1096
Several factors including internal factors which are related to the structure and components of transmission and external factors which are related to the running condition influence transmission efficiency (TE) collectively. Selected one manual transmission as the research object, this paper mainly analyzes factors including gears and bearings power loss through theoretical calculation and the external factors, such as gears, temperature and torque. Firstly, with a methodology, the overall efficiency of the manual transmission is calculated based on factors. Then, this paper discusses efficiency through external factor. This transmission is experimented on transmission test bench. On the bench, the driving motor (DM) simulates the power input of engine and the load motor (LM) simulates the whole resistance of vehicle. The mechanical transmission is operating in different speeds, torques and work temperature, thus the corresponding data are obtained.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study and Parameter Optimization on a Diesel - Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0769
This work presents a comprehensive computational study of diesel - natural gas (NG) dual fuel engine. A complete computational model is developed for the operation of a diesel - NG dual fuel engine modified from an AVL 5402 single cylinder diesel test engine. The model is based on the KIVA-3V program and includes customized sub-models. The model is validated against test cell measurements of both pure diesel and dual fuel operation. The effects of NG on ignition and combustion in dual fuel operation are analyzed in detail. Zero-dimensional computations with a diesel surrogate reaction mechanism are conducted to discover the effects of NG on ignition and combustion and to reveal the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind such effects. Backed by the detailed theoretical analysis, the engine operation parameters are optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) for the dual fuel operation of the modified AVL 5402 test engine.
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