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Technical Paper

Piston Friction Losses in High-Speed Engines

1991-11-01
911230
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the piston shape and weight on the friction losses. The motoring test was conducted on pistons with various shapes, rigidities, and weights at 3000-16000 rpm. The test results suggested that the piston friction loss would be abruptly increased mainly because of the increase in the skirt friction caused by the change of the piston attitude. Then, the piston behavioral simulation was conducted using a two-dimensional rigid model in consideration of the skirt rigidity, which proved the above suggestion. This paper consists of the paper presented at 1990 JSAE Autumn Convention and the results of the investigation we conducted based on the calculation of piston behavioral simulation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Multi-Valve Four Cycle Engine Design-The Benefit of Five-Valve Technology

1986-02-01
860032
THE MULTI-VALVE FOUR STROKE CYCLE engine design trend is Coward increased engine power and higher fuel efficiency. While a four-valve system is the most common direction, problems occur when the valve area is widened by increasing the cylinder bore for a higher engine output. The layout of four larger valves causes the combustion chamber shape to flatten and the combustion time period to increase. In pursuit of the optimum multi-valve engine we have studied four, five, six and seven-valve per cylinder design. Performance targets and design constraints led us toward the successful five-valve engine technology. This technology develops high engine torque and efficient combustion over a wide range of engine speeds.
Technical Paper

On the Theory of Orthogonal Engine Mount System and Its Application to Motorcycles

1983-02-01
830088
By orthogonalizing the primary inertia moment vector produced by an engine with many engine vectors, a new engine mounting method called “the orthogonal engine mount system” was designed. This paper explains its theoretical background. In addition, a motorcycle with a two-cylinder engine incorporating this system was analyzed by means of modal analysis and building block approach techniques to determine the effectiveness of the orthogonal engine mount system.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Engines: Past, Present and Future

1999-09-28
1999-01-3347
In the past, the performance of motorcycle engines has improved quite rapidly through intensive competition in racing and in the marketplace. Motorcycle engines have contributed to the technological progress of internal combustion engines (hereafter abbreviated as ICE). Today's environmental concerns require motorcycle engines to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission pollutants. After examination of potential measures to improve the thermal efficiency of small engines, it was concluded that if engineers of motorcycle engines fail to take on new ideas such as those being developed in cold fusion, it is foreseen that motorcycle engines will be replaced with new power plants as was seen on locomotives in the past.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Engine Development System by Using a Test Bed with Simulation Technology

2006-11-13
2006-32-0103
With the hope of efficient and sophisticated motorcycle engine development, an engine test bed that can simulate vehicle running conditions using an ultra-low inertia motor and high response load control system was constructed, and was applied to the development of engines. By combining an exhaust gas analyzer, an exhaust gas constant volume sampler (CVS), and a data processing system, mass emissions could be measured in various test cycles. This system's advantages for data repeatability and test efficiency compared with a chassis test using a vehicle were confirmed. An acceleration test was conducted to assess running performance, and good agreement with actual driving values was confirmed. In addition, by measuring and evaluating engine response to throttle manipulation, it was possible to evaluate driveability on the test bed. These test findings indicate that this test bed can simulate vehicle driving tests with the engine only and will be a useful tool in engine development.
Technical Paper

L.D.V. Measurements of Pipe Flows in a Small-Two-Cycle Spark-lgnition Engine

1984-02-01
840425
A laser Doppler velocimeter is used to measure in real time the velocities of pipe flows in a crankcase-scavenged small two-cycle engine with piston and reed valves. Consequently the optical windows in each pipe must be exchanged instantly by using rotary window systems. The flows in both the inlet and exhaust pipes show different patterns in the motored and firing conditions, but the flows in the scavenging pipe are in a similar pattern regardless of the operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Relationship Between Thermal Efficiency and NOx Formation in Ultra-Lean Combustion

1999-09-28
1999-01-3328
With emergence of fuel cells which have much better thermal efficiency than internal combustion engines (later abbreviated as ICE), ICE has to improve its thermal efficiency to the level of 50%. One of the ways to improve the thermal efficiency of ICE is to utilize ultra-lean combustion and several technical papers have been published. But it seems the thermal efficiency has not been improved as the theory predicts. The test data of these technical papers were re-examined and it was concluded that the thermal dissociation of burned gas and NOx formation is the key factor of a discrepancy between the theory and the actual test data. In order to prevent an occurrence of thermal dissociation, emulsified fuels (mixture of carbonaceous fuels with water) was proposed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injection and Flame Propagation on Combustion in Motorcycle Engine - Investigation by Visualization Technique

2011-11-08
2011-32-0566
This paper reports visualization of behavior of spray, wall film, and initial flame propagation in an SI engine with port fuel injection system for motorcycle in order to directly investigate their influences on combustion and relations among them. Borescopes were used to visualize the flame propagation in the combustion chamber and wall film in the intake port. Various injection systems and injection parameters were tested: injection direction, timing, and size of droplets to investigate the effect of mixture formation. It is concluded that combustion stability under low load condition is greatly influenced by mixture inhomogeneity in the combustion chamber whose evidence is the luminous emission. It is caused by direct induction of considerable amount of liquid fuel with large size of droplets into combustion chamber or too inhomogeneous mixture in the intake port.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

2009-11-03
2009-32-0049
A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Journal Article

Improvement of the Startability with Reverse Stroke Intake Devices for a Motorcycle Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0107
This paper proposes a novel engine starter system composed of a small-power electric motor and a simple mechanical valve train. The system makes it possible to design more efficient starters than conventional systems, and it is especially effective to restart engines equipped with idling stop systems. Recently, several idling stop systems, having intelligent start-up functions and highly-efficient generate capabilities have been proposed for motorcycles. One of challenges of the idling stop systems is the downsizing of electric motors for starting-up. However, there are many limitations to downsize the electric motors in the conventional idling stop systems, since the systems utilize the forward-rotational torque of the electric motors to compress the air-fuel mixture gas in the cylinders. Our studies exceeded the limitations of downsizing the electric motors by mainly using the engine combustion energy instead of the electric energy to go over the first compression top dead center.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Two-Stroke Engine Performance with the Yamaha Power Valve System (YPVS)

1981-09-01
810922
In two-stroke engines, the exhaust port timing has a great effect on engine performance characteristics. If the exhaust port timing can be varied in response to variations in the engine speed, an extensive improvement of performance can be realized. The Yamaha Power Valve System (YPVS) increases engine output with a valve which operates in the exhaust passage; this valve controls exhaust port timing in response to engine speed, despite the extremely high thermal load encountered in the exhaust passage. This literature deals with the construction and operation principles of YPVS and its effect on the increase of engine output. Also discussed is a series of tests and measurements made on the delivery ratio and trapping efficiency in order to elucidate why engine output is increased.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption with Variable Exhaust Port Timing in a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

1985-02-01
850183
In this study, an improvement of fuel consumption by changing the exhaust timing of a two-stroke engine has been made. The study results revealed that a remarkable improvement of fuel economy is possible by controlling the exhaust timing according to the engine speed. The reason for the better fuel economy was clarified through an analysis of exhaust gases, theoretical cycle calculations, and an analysis of combustion pressure. As an example of actual application, the results of tests made on an engine equipped with Yamaha power Valve System (YPVS), which is a variable exhaust timing mechanism using a tabor-shaped valve, will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System for Small Motorcycles

2003-09-15
2003-32-0084
Attempts have been made to develop an electronically controlled fuel injection system that is ideal for small motorcycles, cost-efficient, compact, and electric power-saving while maintaining accuracy. For reducing the number of sensors and cost, highly accurate methods have been developed for the measurement of intake air mass, detection of acceleration, distinction of engine stroke, and estimation of atmospheric pressure without using a throttle position sensor, cam timing sensor, and barometric sensor in such a manner as to carry out sampling with the intake manifold pressure of single-cylinder engines synchronizing with the crank angle. For compactness and electric power saving, an injector and in-tank fuel pump module have been developed for small motorcycles.
Journal Article

Friction Measurement of Al-17%Si Monolithic Cylinder with using Newly Developed Floating Liner Device

2014-11-11
2014-32-0052
The improvement of fuel consumption is the most important issue for engine manufactures from the viewpoint of energy and environment conservation. A piston-cylinder system plays an important role for the reduction of an engine friction. For the improvement of the frictional behavior of the piston-cylinder system, it is beneficial to observe and analyze the frictional waveforms during an engine operation. To meet the above-mentioned demand, frictional waveforms were measured with using the renewed floating liner device. In the newly developed floating liner device, an actual cylinder block itself was used as a test specimen. The measured single cylinder was an aluminum monolithic type made of hypereutectic Al-17%Si alloy using a high pressure die casting process. The combined piston was a light weight forged piston and a DLC coated piston ring was used. For the measurement, 110cc air cooled single cylinder engine was used.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3556
The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Compensated Control of Gradient for the Haptic Throttle Grip

2013-10-15
2013-32-9026
Recently, there have been many reports about developing control systems that actuate engines and brakes based on friction circle. We are researching the control system for motorcycles, which adds the return torque of throttle grip based on it for informing the limit of tire grip on the driving wheel. This throttle grip is a haptic display, offers haptic signals by controlling the motor connected to the throttle grip as a HMI. From the results of riding tests, the system was found helpful for riders to control the throttle grip as well as feeling easy about knowing the limit of tire grip. But it is known that the friction circle of a driving wheel depends on the normal force which changes by the gradient of road, acceleration and so on. The compensated control for changing the normal force by gradient was made to improve the throttle grip control system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Piston Secondary Motion Analysis Program with Elastically Deformable Piston Skirt

1999-09-28
1999-01-3303
An original multi-body dynamics simulation program for reciprocating engine system with elastically deformable piston skirt was developed in order to understand and examine the secondary motion of piston. This program uses specialized equations of motion using only the rotational degree of freedom of each components taking the valiation of rotating speed of crank into account. In order to validate the practical use of this program, the calculations were compared with the measurements on the piston motion of a two-stroke engine for motorcycles and a four-stroke engine for automobiles, and good agreements were obtained between them.
Technical Paper

Development of Pollution-Free Rapid Plating System

1985-11-11
852264
It is in the plating process that the worst bottleneck occurs in plant automation. We, however, have succeeded in making our plating process free from pollution and compact, allowing us to install this system within a production line and consequently establish a continuous production line resulting in a decrease in plating cost to about 1/2 of the previous cost. We have achieved an excellent chrome plating speed of 60µ/min, by placing an anode relatively close to the part to be plated and by sending the plating solution into the space between the two by means of a pump. This provides a plating speed 100 times faster than with conventional methods, while improving the quality of the plating coat considerably. The system is optimum for functional platings, and can be used for the plating of shock absorber rods, engine valves, engine cylinders, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of Motorcycle Engine Starting System Simulation Considering Air-Fuel Ratio Control

2017-11-05
2017-32-0045
Recently the response of the engine speed at starting has more importance than ever for quick start satisfying rider’s needs, as well as exhaust emissions. We have developed a simulation for studying engine and starter specifications, engine control algorithm and other engine control parameters. This system can be utilized to realize appropriate starting time by considering air-fuel ratio under various conditions. This paper addresses what are taken account of in our method. Examples applying this to a conventional motorcycle engine are shown.
Journal Article

Development of Fracture-Split Connecting Rods Made of Titanium Alloy for Use on Supersport Motorcycles

2015-11-17
2015-32-0830
A connecting rod made of titanium alloy is effective for lower fuel consumption and higher power output comparing to a steel one because the titanium connecting rod enables to reduce the weight of both of reciprocating and rotating parts in an entire engine substantially. But up to now, it has been adopted only to expensive and small-lot production models because a material cost is high, a processing is difficult and a wear on a sliding area should be prevented. In order to adopt the titanium connecting rods into a more types of motorcycles, appropriate materials, processing methods and surface treatment were considered. Hot forging process was applied not only to reduce a machining volume but also to enhance a material strength and stiffness. And the fracture-splitting (FS) method for the big-end of the titanium connecting rod was put into a practical use.
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