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Standard

Verification of Landing Gear Design Strength

2010-04-13
CURRENT
AIR1494B
Verification of landing gear design strength is accomplished by dynamic and static test programs. This is essentially a verification of the analytical procedures used to design the gear. An industry survey was recently conducted to determine just what analysis and testing are currently being applied to landing gear. Timing in relation to first flight of new aircraft was also questioned. Opinions were solicited from designers of the following categories and/or types of aircraft: a. military - large land based (bomber); b. mililtary - small land based (fighter); c. military - carrier based (Navy); d. military - helicopter (large); e. military - helicopter (small-attack); f. commercial - large (airliner); g. commercial - small (business); and h. USAF (WPAFB) - recommendations. It is the objective of this AIR to present a summary of these responses.
Standard

Landing Gear Structures and Mechanisms

2009-02-04
HISTORICAL
ARP1311C
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) applies to landing gear structures and mechanisms (excluding wheels, tires, and brakes and other landing gear systems) for all types and models of civil and military aircraft. All axles, wheel forks, links, arms, mechanical and gas/oil shock struts, downlock and uplock assemblies, braces, trunnion beams, and truck beams etc., that sustain loads originating at the ground, and that are not integral parts of the airframe structure, should be designed and validated in accordance with this document. Hydraulic actuators (retraction, main and nose gear steering, positioning, damping, etc.) should also be included in this coverage. System level, non-structural components such as retraction/extension valves, controllers, secondary structure and mechanisms in the airframe (e.g., manual release mechanisms, slaved doors) as well as equipment that is located in the cockpit are not addressed in this ARP.
Standard

Gland Design: Scraper, Landing Gear, Installation

2008-11-24
CURRENT
AS4052B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers an alternate gland design for the installation of scraper/wiper rings in the lower end of landing gear shock struts for the purpose of contaminant exclusion. The defined scraper gland covered by this document, as shown in Table 1, is a variant of AS4716, the accepted gland standard for MS28775, O-ring packing seals. Piston rod diameters, gland internal diameters, groove sidewall angles and the surface finish are all defined by AS4716, but the gland outer retaining wall diameter is changed. The traditional scraper design installed into the glands detailed in Table 1 typically utilize components made from urethane or nitrile materials. These scraper designs, while still acceptable, must be reviewed in consideration to deicing, cleaners and disinfectant fluids applied to or in contact with the landing gear, as the materials of construction for the installed scrapers may not be compatible to these fluids.
Standard

Landing Gear Retraction / Extension Systems

2008-05-14
WIP
ARP5569
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) will cover normal and emergency landing gear retraction/extension systems. This includes all equipment necessary for the control and sensing of the components used for raising and lowering the gear, up-locking and down-locking the gear, opening and closing the associated landing gear doors, and any latching of this equipment. The document will provide recommended practices for the use of conventional technologies and for those newer technologies now coming into use. It will include the regulatory and other safety requirements for these systems together with recommendations for; sequencing and timing, sensor selection, and failure monitoring of both normal and emergency operation and the support of maintenance and test needs.
Standard

Landing Gear Servicing

2008-03-25
HISTORICAL
ARP5908
The present document addresses gas and hydraulic fluid servicing required on commercial and military aircraft landing gears, for both single and dual chamber shock struts.
Standard

Arresting Hook Installation, Land-Based Aircraft

2007-10-11
CURRENT
ARP1538B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of land-based aircraft emergency and operational arresting hooks for use on runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier-based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
Standard

Plain Bearing Selection for Landing Gear Applications

2007-03-05
HISTORICAL
AIR1594B
This document is intended to give advisory information for the selection of plain bearings and bearing materials most suitable for aircraft landing gear applications. Information included herein was derived from bearing tests and service experience/reports. Airframe/landing gear manufacturers, commercial airlines, the U.S. Air Force and Naval Air Systems Command provided input for the document. Information is given on bearing installation methods and fits that have given satisfactory performance and service life. Base metal corrosion is a major cause of problems in bearing installations for landing gears. Therefore, methods of corrosion prevention are discussed. Effort is directed toward minimizing maintenance and maximizing life expectancy of landing gear bearings. Lubricated and self-lubricating bearings are also discussed. There are wide ranges of bearing load and motion requirements for applications in aircraft landing gears.
Standard

Extraordinary and Special Purpose Landing Gear Systems

2006-05-19
HISTORICAL
AIR4846
A landing gear system comprises the most compelling assembly of engineering skills. Its importance to the successful design of an aircraft can be favorably compared with that of the aircraft's wings and engines. A landing gear system consists of several different engineering disciplines, and is continually in the public eye especially with regard to safety. The primary objective of AIR4846 is to present a record of a variety of interesting gears, gear/aircraft systems and patents, and to discuss wherever possible the lessons learned, and the reasons for the design. Thus, the document is not only a historical account, but a means of recording technical knowledge for the practical benefit of future landing gear designers. Commendable efforts have been made over the years by several individuals to make such recordings, and AIR4846 will make continual reference to them. This applies to all books, papers, or specifications that have the approval of the SAE A-5 Committee.
Standard

Recommended Actions When Disinfectants, De-icers, and Cleaners Come in Contact with Landing Gear Structure

2006-04-20
HISTORICAL
AIR5541
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) advises that some of the chemicals being used to disinfect, de-ice, and clean airplanes can cause corrosion and/or degradation of landing gear components. Landing gear equipment includes shock struts, braces, actuators, wheels, brakes, tires, and electrical components. Some of the chemicals that have been recognized as potentially injurious are identified and recommendations for mitigating damage are presented.
Standard

Crack Initiation and Growth Considerations for Landing Gear Steel With Emphasis on Aermet 100

2004-12-27
CURRENT
AIR5052A
Steel alloys, such as AF1410 (AMS 6527, UNS K92571) and AerMet 100 (AMS 6532), have been developed which have improved Fracture Toughness characteristics compared to the current landing gear steel alloy, 300M (AMS 6419 and AMS 6257, MIL-S-8844, UNS K44220). The 300M steel is the most widely used material in current landing gear designs. It has been successfully used in thousands of applications. The use of the 300M material necessitates a safe life design criterion where components are retired after on-fourth to one-sixth the laboratory test life. This criterion was established in part due to the relative low fracture toughness of low-alloy steel in the 260 to 300 ksi strength range. The high fracture tough alloys give comparable strength levels with an increase in fracture toughness and better resistance to stress corrosion cracking. These alloys may make possible the consideration of new procedures for operation, maintenance, and inspection.
Standard

Landing Gear Common Repair

2004-12-01
HISTORICAL
AIR5885
This document outlines the most common repairs used on landing gear components. It is not the intention of this AIR to replace Overhaul/Component Maintenance or Technical Order Manuals, but it can serve as a guide into their preparation. This document may also be used as a template to develop an MRB (Material Review Board) plan. The recommendations in this document apply to components made of metallic alloys. These recommendations are intended for new manufactured components as well as for overhauled components. The extent of repair allowed for new components as opposed to in-service components is left to the cognizant engineering authorities. Reference could be made to this document when justifying repairs on landing gears. For repairs outside the scope of this document, a detailed justification is necessary. It must be understood that all the repairs listed in this document are not to be applied without the involvement of the cognizant engineer.
Standard

Landing Gear Shock Strut Hydraulic Fluid

2004-01-30
HISTORICAL
AIR5358
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) was prepared by a panel of the SAE A-5 Committee. This document establishes the specifications for fluids used in landing gear shock struts with extreme pressure and antiwear additives that have been added for improved lubrication. This document requires qualified products.
Standard

Design, Development and Test Criteria - Solid State Proximity Switches/Systems for Landing Gear Applications

2001-10-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1810B
This document will examine the more important considerations relative to the utilization of "one piece", or integral electronics proximity switches, and "two piece", or separate sensor and electronics proximity switches, for applications on aircraft landing gear. In general, the recommendations included are applicable for other demanding aircraft sensor installations where the environment is equally severe.
Standard

Tail Bumpers for Piloted Aircraft

2001-10-01
HISTORICAL
ARP1107B
This recommended practice covers the fixed structure, or independent energy absorbing system affixed to the airframe to afford protection to the control surfaces, engine and other portions during ground handling, take-off and landing.
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