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Technical Paper

Combustion in a Two-stage Injection PCCI Engine With Lower Distillation-temperature Fuels

2004-06-08
2004-01-1914
The combustion characteristics in a partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine with n-hexane were compared with ordinary diesel fuel to evaluate combustion improvements with lower distillation-temperature fuels. In the PCCI engine, a lean mixture was formed reasonably with early stage injection and the additional fuel was supplied with a second stage fuel injection after ignition. With n-hexane, thermal efficiency improved while simultaneously maintaining low NOx and smokeless combustion. A CFD analysis simulated the mixture formation processes and showed that the uniformity of the mixture with the first stage injection improves with lower distillation-temperature fuels.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Transient Characteristics of Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Diesel Engine with Different Increasing and Decreasing Load Patterns

1997-02-24
970750
Cycle-to-cycle changes in diesel exhaust gas emissions were investigated under two transient operation patterns: One, “an interval step decreasing and increasing load”, where the fuel amount is rapidly decreased from high to low loads, and after an interval, Δtint the fuel amount is abruptly returned to the initial level. The other is “a ramp increasing load”, where the fuel amount is increased gradually. Except just after the step increase in fuel amounts, the THC emissions were almost completely determined by the piston wall temperature and fuel amount. However, the THC concentrations immediately after the step increase in fuel amounts were much higher than the value of the corresponding steady state operation with the same piston wall temperature. This overshoot concentration, ΔTHC, was almost constant at different intervals, Δtint and it can be suppressed by ramp increased loading.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-cycle Transient Characteristics of Diesel Emissions during Starting

1999-10-25
1999-01-3495
Changes in exhaust gas emissions during starting in a DI diesel engine were investigated. The THC after starting increased until around the 50th cycle when the fuel deposited on the combustion chamber showed the maximum, and THC then decreased to reach a steady value after about 1000 cycles when the piston wall temperature became constant. The NOx showed an initial higher peak just after starting, and increased to a steady value after about 1000 cycles. Exhaust odor had a strong correlation with THC, and at the early stage odor was stronger than would be expected from the THC concentration. The THC increased with increased fuel injection amounts, decreased cranking speeds, and fuels with higher viscosity, higher 90% distillation temperature, and lower ignitability.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Properties

2006-10-16
2006-01-3387
The dependence of ultra-high EGR low temperature diesel combustion on fuel properties including cetane number and distillation temperature was investigated with a single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, 1.0 L, common rail DI diesel engine. Decreasing cetane number in fuels significantly reduces smoke emission due to an extension in ignition delay and the subsequent improvement in mixture formation. Smokeless combustion, ultra-low NOx, and efficient operating range with regard to EGR and IMEP are significantly extended by decreasing fuel cetane number. Changes in fuel distillation temperature do not result in significant differences in smoke emission and thermal efficiency for ultra-high EGR operation, and smokeless operation is established even with higher distillation temperature fuels as long as fuel cetane number is sufficiently low.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

2006-10-16
2006-01-3386
This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Description of Diesel Emissions by Individual Fuel Properties

1992-10-01
922221
The effects of several fuel property variables on the emissions from a D.I. diesel engine were individually analyzed. The results showed that the smoke and dry soot increased with increased kinematic viscosity, shorter ignition lag, and higher aromatic content, especially at high equivalence ratios. Over the whole range of equivalence ratios, SOF depended on and increased with only ignition lag. The NOx improved slightly with increased kinematic viscosity, higher ignitability, and decreased aromatic content. The unburnt HC also improved with decreased kinematic viscosity and higher ignitability. The distribution shape of distillation curves had little influence on the emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Reactor HC-SCR System and the Evaluation of NOx Reduction Characteristics

2015-09-01
2015-01-2021
To reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines, the urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system has been introduced commercially. In urea-SCR, the freezing point of the urea aqueous solution, the deoxidizer, is −11°C, and the handling of the deoxidizer under cold weather conditions is a problem. Further, the ammonia escape from the catalyst and the generation of N2O emissions are also problems. To overcome these disadvantages of the urea-SCR system, the addition of a hydrocarbon deoxidizer has attracted attention. In this paper, a micro-reactor SCR system was developed and attached to the exhaust pipe of a single cylinder diesel engine. With the micro-reactor, the catalyst temperature, quantity of deoxidizer, and the space velocity can be controlled, and it is possible to use it with gas and liquid phase deoxidizers. The catalyst used in the tests reported here is Ag(1wt%)-γAl2O3.
Technical Paper

Distinguishing the Effects of Aromatic Content and Ignitability of Fuels in Diesel Combustion and Emissions

1991-10-01
912355
The influence of aromatic content in fuels on the soot and NOx emissions from a diesel engine was analyzed under controlled ignition lags with spark-assisted operation. Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-hexane mixtures were used as fuels, and the aromatic content was varied from 0 to 75 v-%. The experiments showed that, at the same equivalence ratio and regardless of the molecular structure of the fuel, the soot concentration in the exhaust gas could be described by a linear-combination function with two variables representing the ignition lag and C/H atom-ratio of the fuels. For unchanged ignition lags, the soot emissions increased linearly with increased C/H atom-ratios, which are controlled by the aromatic content. The degree of increase in soot emissions with increasing C/H atom-ratio decreased with decreasing equivalence ratios. The NOx emission increased slightly with increases in the C/H atom-ratio and ignition lag.
Journal Article

Effect of Exhaust Catalysts on Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with High Rates of Cooled EGR

2008-04-14
2008-01-0647
Unregulated emissions from a DI diesel engine with ultra-high EGR low temperature combustion were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the reduction characteristics of both regulated and unregulated emissions by two exhaust catalysts were investigated. With ultra-high EGR suppressing the in-cylinder soot and Nox formation as well as with the exhaust catalysts removing the engine-out THC and CO emissions, clean diesel operation in terms of ultra-low regulated emissions (Nox, PM, THC, and CO) is established in an operating range up to 50% load. To realize smokeless low temperature combustion at higher loads, EGR has to be increased to a rate with the overall (average) excess air ratio less than the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Pilot Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Engines with Low Ignitability Fuel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0853
Characteristics of diesel combustion with low cetane number fuels with similar distillation temperatures to ordinary diesel fuel, including fuels with cetane number 32 and 39 (LC32, LC39), and a blend of n-cetane (n-hexadecane) and iso-cetane (2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 8, 8-heptamethylnonane) with cetane number 32 (CN32), were investigated. The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and pilot injection on characteristics of combustion and exhaust gas emissions with these fuels were examined in a naturally aspirated, single cylinder, diesel engine equipped with a common-rail fuel injection system. Even with the low cetane number fuels, quiet combustion with low levels of exhaust gas emissions comparable to ordinary diesel fuel was established by suitable control of intake oxygen levels and pilot injections.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

2012-09-10
2012-01-1577
The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
Technical Paper

Identification of Factors Influencing Premixed Diesel Engine Noise and Mechanism of Noise Reduction by EGR and Supercharging

2013-04-08
2013-01-0313
To determine the engine noise reduction methods, an engine noise research was conducted experimentally with a PCCI diesel engine. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged, single-cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave form and the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise. It is well known that the maximum pressure rise rate is the main parameter related to the engine noise. The PCCI engine was operated at a 1.0 MPa/°CA maximum pressure rise rate to eliminate the effects of the maximum pressure rise rate, and parameters which had the dominant effect on engine noise and combustion noise were determined.
Technical Paper

Impingement and Adhesion on Cylinder Liners with Post Diesel Fuel Injections

2016-10-17
2016-01-2193
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are widely used in diesel engines, and forced regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter (PM) accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, the socalled “post fuel injection”, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with the high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90CA ATDC, and fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner wall in some cases. Buddie and Pischinger [1] have reported a lubricant oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations, and adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption. In this paper, the impingement and adhesion of post diesel fuel injections on the cylinder liner was investigated by an optical method with a high pressure constant volume chamber (ϕ110mm, 883cm3).
Journal Article

Improvement in DME-HCCI Combustion with Ethanol as a Low-Temperature Oxidation Inhibitor

2011-08-30
2011-01-1791
Port injection of ethanol addition as an ignition inhibitor was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in DME fueled HCCI combustion. The ethanol reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of the high-temperature reaction with ultra-low NOx over a wide operating range. Along with the ethanol addition, changes in intake temperature, overall equivalence ratio, and engine speed are investigated and shown to be effective in HCCI combustion control and to enable an extension of operation range. A chemical reaction analysis was performed to elucidate details of the ignition inhibition on low-temperature oxidation of DME-HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0863
Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Addition of Various Oxygenated Agents to Diesel Fuels

1996-10-01
962115
The effect of eight kinds of oxygenated agents added to diesel fuels on the combustion and emissions was investigated in a DI diesel engine. The results showed significant smoke and particulate suppression without increases in NOx with every oxygenated agent. The emissions decreased linearly with increasing oxygen content in the fuels, almost regardless of the kind of oxygenated agent. The improvement in smoke and particulate emissions with the oxygenated agent addition was more significant for lower volatility fuels. Combustion analysis with the two-dimensional two color method showed that soot concentration in the flame during the combustion process decreased with the addition of the oxygenated agent while the flame temperature distribution was almost unchanged.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Diesel Combustion with After-Injection

2008-10-06
2008-01-2476
The effect of after-injection on exhaust gas emissions from a DI diesel engine with a common rail injection system was experimentally investigated for a range of operating conditions. The results showed that over the whole of the operating range, some reduction in smoke emissions can be achieved with after-injection, without deterioration in thermal efficiency and other emission characteristics. The optimum quantity of after-injection for smoke reduction is 20% of the total fuel supply, and the optimum timing is just after the main injection. Visualization in a bottom view type engine showed that with after-injection, soot formation in the main-injection decrease more due to a smaller quantity of fuel than without after-injection, and soot formation with after-injection is insignificant.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Blending ETBE to Diesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-1866
The effects of blending ETBE to diesel fuel on the characteristics of low temperature diesel combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated in a naturally-aspirated DI diesel engine with large rates of cooled EGR. Low temperature smokeless diesel combustion in a wide EGR range was established with ETBE blended diesel fuel as mixture homogeneity is promoted with increased premixed duration due to decreases in ignitability as well as with improvement in fuel vaporization due to the lower boiling point of ETBE. Increasing the ETBE content in the fuel helps to suppress smoke emissions and maintain efficient smokeless operation when increasing EGR, however a too high ETBE content causes misfiring at larger rates of EGR. While the NOx emissions increase with increases in ETBE content at high intake oxygen concentrations, NOx almost completely disappears when reducing the intake oxygen content below 14 % with cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Improvements of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Two-stage Fuel Injection at Different Piston Positions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1180
The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to prevent the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separates the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. Experiments showed that an ordinary cavity without the central lip emitted more smoke, while smokeless, low NOx operation was realized with a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emits smoke.
Technical Paper

Improvements to Premixed Diesel Combustion with Ignition Inhibitor Effects of Premixed Ethanol by Intake Port Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-0866
Premixed diesel combustion modes including low temperature combustion and MK combustion are expected to realize smokeless and low NOx emissions. As ignition must be delayed until after the end of fuel injection to establish these combustion modes, methods for active ignition control are being actively pursued. It is reported that alcohols including methanol and ethanol strongly inhibit low temperature oxidation in HCCI combustion offering the possibility to control ignition with alcohol induction. In this research improvement of diesel combustion and emissions by ethanol intake port injection for the promotion of premixing of the in-cylinder injected diesel fuel, and by increased EGR for the reduction of combustion temperature.
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