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Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Road Load Model for ECU Broadcast Power Verification in On-Road Emissions Testing

2006-10-16
2006-01-3392
The 1998 Consent Decrees between the United States Government and the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers require in-use emissions testing from post 2000 model year engines. The emissions gathered from these engines must be reported on a brake-specific mass basis. To report brake-specific mass emissions, three primary parameters must be measured. These are the concentration of each emission constituent, the exhaust mass flow rate, and the engine power output. The measurement of the concentration level and exhaust mass flow rate can be (and are generally) measured directly with instrumentation installed in the exhaust transfer tube. However, engine power cannot be measured directly for in-use emissions testing due to the direct coupling of the engine output shaft to the vehicle's transmission. Engine power can be inferred from the electronic control unit (ECU) broadcast of engine speed and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Abatement of Diesel Crankcase Emissions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3372
In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency will begin measuring not only exhaust emissions from diesel engines, but also emissions from the crankcase if it is not vented into the engine intake. The 2007 government standards for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) will also become more restrictive. There is the additional concern that crankcase emissions from present day trucks and buses may impact the quality of air inside the vehicle. This paper presents data to characterize crankcase emissions and examines a crankcase emissions abatement system (CEAS), the New Condensator®, manufactured by World NCI. Rather than allowing crankcase emissions to leave via a vent tube, a CEAS re-circulates the emissions to the intake of the engine.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2005-10-24
2005-01-3769
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

Nitric Oxide Conversion in a Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0234
Understanding the nitric oxide (NO) conversion process plays a major role in optimizing the Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) technique. SNR has been proven in gasoline and diesel engines, with up to 90% NOX conversion rates being achieved. This technique involves adsorbing NOX from an exhaust stream, then selectively desorbing the NOX into a concentrated NOX stream, which is fed back into the engine's intake, thereby converting a percentage of the concentrated NOX stream into harmless gases. The emphasis of this paper is on the unique chemical kinetic modeling problem that occurs with high concentrations of NOX in the intake air of a spark ignited natural gas engine with SNR. CHEMKIN, a chemical kinetic solver software package, was used to perform the reaction modeling. A closed homogeneous batch reactor model was used to model the fraction of NOX versus time for varying initial conditions and constants.
Technical Paper

Assessment of NOx Destruction in Diesel Engines by Injecting NO in the Intake Manifold

2005-04-11
2005-01-0370
Emissions from diesel engines, particularly NOx and TPM emissions are harmful to the environment. Reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines is of increasing concern. In 1998, a novel approach called Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) was used to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. The SNR concept relies on two major parts, one to collect the NOx emissions from the exhaust by an adsorber, and another to decompose NOx using the in-cylinder combustion process by injecting the collected NOx emissions into the intake manifold at an elevated concentration. This paper deals with the destruction rates during the combustion process. A 1992 DDC series 60, 350 hp, 12.7 liter engine was connected to a 500 hp DC dynamometer. A full-scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring continuous NOx, CO2, CO, HC, and PM in the exhaust were used.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Emissions Reduction Performance of an SCR System Over Two Years' In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Operation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1861
Increasingly stringent oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) regulations worldwide have prompted considerable activity in developing emission control technology to reduce the emissions of these two constituents from heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx has come under particular scrutiny by regulators in the US and in Europe with the promulgation of very stringent regulation by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU). In response, heavy-duty engine manufacturers are considering Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as a potential NOx reduction option. While SCR performance has been well established through engine dynamometer evaluation under laboratory conditions, there exists little data characterizing SCR performance under real-world operating conditions over time. This project evaluated the field performance of ten SCR units installed on heavy-duty Class 8 highway and refuse trucks.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Correlation Study Using Linear Regression of PM and NOX for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-1618
When heavy-duty truck emissions rates are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), average speed and the degree of transient behavior of the vehicle activity can affect the emissions rate. Previous one-dimensional studies have shown some correlation of distance-specific emissions rates between cycles. This paper reviews emissions data sets from the 5-mode CARB Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Schedule, the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and an inspection and maintenance cycle, known as the AC5080. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full-scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 56,000 lbs. Two-dimensional correlations were used to predict the emissions rate on one mode or cycle from the rates of two other modes or cycles.
Technical Paper

Examination of a Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Chassis Dynamometer Schedule

2004-10-25
2004-01-2904
Repeatable measurement of real-world heavy-duty diesel truck emissions requires the use of a chassis dynamometer with a test schedule that reasonably represents actual truck use. A new Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) schedule has been created that consists of four modes, termed Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise. The effect of driving style on emissions from the Transient Mode was studied by driving a 400 hp Mack tractor at 56,000 lbs. test weight in fashions termed “Medium”, “Good”, “Bad”, “Casual” and “Aggressive”. Although there were noticeable differences in the actual speed vs. time trace for these five styles, emissions of the important species oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM), varied little with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 5.13% on NOX and 10.68% on PM. Typical NOx values for the HHDDT Transient mode ranged from 19.9 g/mile to 22.75 g/mile. The Transient mode which was the most difficult mode to drive, proved to be repeatable.
Technical Paper

Correlation Study of PM and NOx for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Across Multiple Drive Schedules

2004-10-25
2004-01-3022
When heavy-duty truck emissions are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), the values may depend strongly on the nature of the test cycle or schedule. Prior studies have compared emissions gained using different schedules and have proposed techniques for translating emissions factor rates between schedules. This paper reviews emissions data from the 5-mode CARB HHDDT Schedule, UDDS Schedule, and a steady-state cycle (AC5080), with reference to each other. NOX and PM emissions are the two components of emissions which are reviewed. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 30,000 lbs, 56,000 lbs, and 66,000 lbs. For each vehicle, average data from one mode or cycle have been compared with average data for a different mode or cycle.
Technical Paper

A Configuration for a Continuously Variable Power-Split Transmission in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0571
Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are usually used in small vehicles due to power limitations on the variable elements. Continuously variable power-split transmissions (CVPST) were developed in order to reduce the fraction of power passing through the variable elements [1,2]. The configuration presented in this paper includes a planetary gear train (PGT), which in combination with the CVT allows the power to be split and therefore increase the power envelope of the system. The PGT also provides a branch that can be used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) operation through an electric motor. A conceptual design of a CVPST for a HEV is presented in this paper. The objectives are to show the different operational modes, with diagrams, perform a power analysis, develop the velocity and force equations and finally show the performance of the system with an example application.
Technical Paper

Celebrating the Exclaim!

2003-03-03
2003-01-1260
West Virginia University redesigned a 2002 Ford Explorer and created a diesel electric hybrid vehicle to satisfy the goals of the 2002 FutureTruck competition. These goals were to demonstrate a 25% improvement in fuel economy, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve California ULEV emissions, to demonstrate 1/8-mile acceleration of 11.5 seconds or less, and to maintain vehicular comforts and performance. West Virginia University's 2002 hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV), the Exclaim!, meets or exceeds these goals. Using a post-transmission parallel configuration, WVU integrated a 2.5L Detroit Diesel Corporation engine along with a Unique Mobility 75kW electric motor to replace the stock drivetrain. With an emphasis on maintaining performance, WVU strived to improve areas where SUVs have traditionally performed poorly: fuel economy and emissions. Using regenerative braking, fuel economy has been significantly improved.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Technical Paper

Weighting of Parameters in Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2002-10-21
2002-01-2878
The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a predictive tool has been shown to have a broad range of applications. Earlier work by the authors using ANN models to predict carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines and vehicles yielded marginal to excellent results. These ANN models can be a useful tool in inventory prediction, hybrid vehicle design optimization, and incorporated into a feedback loop of an on-board, active fuel injection management system. In this research, the ANN models were trained on continuous engine and emissions data. The engine data were used as inputs to the ANN models and consisted of engine speed, torque, and their respective first and second derivatives over a one, five, and ten second time range. The continuous emissions data were the desired output that the ANN models learned to predict through an iterative training process.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation for Parametric Study of a Two-Stroke Direct Injection Linear Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1739
Research at West Virginia University has led to the development of a novel crankless reciprocating internal combustion engine. This paper presents a time-based model used to investigate the performance of two-stroke direct injection compression ignition linear engines. The two-stroke linear engine consists of two pistons, linked by a connecting rod, that are allowed to move freely in response to changes in the engine's fueling and load across the full operating cycle of the engine. The computer model uses a combination of a series of dynamic and thermodynamic numerical equations, which have been solved to provide a detailed analysis of the two-stroke direct injection linear engine operation. Parameters such as rate of combustion, convection heat transferred inside the cylinders, friction forces, external loads, acceleration, velocity profile, compression ratio, and in-cylinder pressures were modeled.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Brake-specific NOX Emissions using Zirconia Sensors for In-use, On-board Heavy-duty Vehicle Applications

2002-05-06
2002-01-1755
Emissions tests for heavy -duty diesel-fueled engines and vehicles are normally performed using engine dynamometers and chassis dynamometers, respectively, with laboratory grade gaseous concentration measurement analyzers and supporting test equipment. However, a considerable effort has been recently expended on developing in-use, on-board tools to measure brake-specific emissions from heavy -duty vehicles with the highest degree of accuracy and precision. This alternative testing methodology would supplement the emissions data that is collected from engine and chassis dynamometer tests. The on-board emissions testing methodology entails actively recording emissions and vehicle operating parameters (engine speed and load, vehicle speed etc.) from vehicles while they are operating on the road. This paper focuses on in-use measurements of NOX with zirconium oxide sensors and other portable NOX detectors.
Technical Paper

Inference of Torque and Power from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines for On-Road Emissions Monitoring

2002-03-04
2002-01-0614
Increased concerns about the emissions produced from mobile sources have placed an emphasis on the in-use monitoring of on- and off-road vehicles. Measuring the emissions emitted from an in-use vehicle during its operation provides for a rich dataset that is generally too expensive and too time consuming to reproduce in a laboratory setting. Many portable systems have been developed and implemented in the past to acquire in-use emissions data for spark ignited and compression ignited engines. However, the majority of these systems only measured the concentration levels of the exhaust constituents and or reported the results in time-specific (g/s) and or distance-specific (g/km) mass units through knowledge of the exhaust flow. For heavy-duty engines, it is desirable to report the in-use emission levels in brake-specific mass units (g/kW-hr) since that is how the emission levels are reported from engine dynamometer certification testing.
Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0433
A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Determining Continuous Particulate Matter from Transient Testing of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3575
The historical lack of continuous data for PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines hampers advanced inventory approaches and hampers second-by-second engine control optimization. Continuos PM data can be obtained using a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), but moisture correction of data is needed to remove unwanted transient components of the mass. Reasonable correlation can be found between TEOM data integrated over the cycle and conventional PM filter data. Considerable scatter was evident when continuous TEOM data were plotted against instantaneous power, but by dispersing the power in time a clearer relationship was evident. Continuous TEOM data showed the same gross trends as PM filter mass distributed over a cycle in proportion to instantaneous CO, but it was evident that this CO proportioning technique is at best approximate. Binning of PM mass rate as a function of vehicle speed and acceleration were also evaluated for inventory purposes.
Technical Paper

Measurement of In-Use, On-Board Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles:Mobile Emissions Measurement System

2001-09-24
2001-01-3643
Emissions tests for heavy-duty diesel-fueled vehicles are normally performed using an engine dynamometer or a chassis dynamometer. Both of these methods generally entail the use of laboratory-grade emissions measurement instrumentation, a CVS system, an environment control system, a dynamometer, and associated data acquisition and control systems. The results obtained from such tests provide a means by which engines may be compared to the emissions standards, but may not be truly indicative of an engine's in-vehicle performance while operating on the road. An alternative to such a testing methodology would be to actively record the emissions from a vehicle while it was operating on-road. A considerable amount of discussion has been focused on the development of on-road emissions measurement systems (OREMS) that would provide for such in-use emissions data collection.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Instantaneous and Measured Emissions in Heavy Duty Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3536
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
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