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Journal Article

Well-To-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model incorporated fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on PSAT simulations of the blended charge depleting (CD) operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle’s total energy use ranging from 6% for PHEV 10 to 24% for PHEV 40 based on CD vehicle mile traveled (VMT) shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. Besides fuel economy of PHEVs and type of on-board fuel, the type of electricity generation mix impacted the WTW results of PHEVs, especially GHG emissions.
Technical Paper

Prospects on Fuel Economy Improvements for Hydrogen Powered Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
Technical Paper

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy: Comparison between EV and Charge-Depleting Options

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested considerable research and development (R&D) effort into Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technology because of the potential fuel displacement offered by the technology. DOE's PHEV R&D Plan [1], which is driven by the desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil by diversifying the fuel sources of automobiles, describes the various activities required to achieve the goals. The U.S. DOE will use Argonne's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to guide its analysis activities, stating, “Argonne's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) will be used to design and evaluate a series of PHEVs with various ‘primary electric’ ranges, considering all-electric and charge-depleting strategies.” PSAT was used to simulate three possible charge-depleting (CD) PHEV control strategies for a power split hybrid. Trip distance was factored into the CD strategies before the cycle was started.
Technical Paper

Midsize and SUV Vehicle Simulation Results for Plug-In HEV Component Requirements

Because Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) substitute electrical power from the utility grid for fuel, they have the potential to reduce petroleum use significantly. However, adoption of PHEVs has been hindered by expensive, low-energy batteries. Recent improvements in Li-ion batteries and hybrid control have addressed battery-related issues and have brought PHEVs within reach. The FreedomCAR Office of Vehicle Technology has a program that studies the potential benefit of PHEVs. This program also attempts to clarify and refine the requirements for PHEV components. Because the battery appears to be the main technical barrier, both from a performance and cost perspective, the main efforts have been focused on that component. Working with FreedomCAR energy storage and vehicle experts, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) researchers have developed a process to define the requirements of energy storage systems for plug-in applications.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Results of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Selected Vehicle/Fuel Systems

A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The new GREET version has up-to-date information regarding energy use and emissions for fuel production activities and vehicle operations. In this study, a complete WTW evaluation targeting energy use, greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O), and typical criteria air pollutants (VOC, NOX, and PM10) includes the following fuel options-gasoline, diesel, and hydrogen; and the following vehicle technologies-spark-ignition engines with or without hybrid configurations, compression-ignition engines with hybrid configurations, and hydrogen fuel cells with hybrid configurations.