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Technical Paper

Measurements of the Evaporation Behavior of the Film of Fuel Blends

2018-04-03
2018-01-0290
The formation of fuel film in the combustion cylinder affects the mixing process of the air and the fuel, and the process of the combustion propagation in engines. Some models of film evaporation have been developed to predict the evaporation behavior of the film, but rarely experimental results have been produced, especially when the temperature is high. In this study, the evaporation behavior of the film of different species of oil and their blends at different temperature are observed. The 45 μL films of isooctane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and their blends were placed on a quartz glass substrate in the closed temperature-controlled chamber. The shape change of the film during evaporation was monitored by a high-speed camera through the window of the chamber. First, the binary blends film of isooctane and one of the other three oils were evaporated at 30 °C, 50 °C, 70 °C and 90 °C.
Technical Paper

An Optical Investigation of Multiple Diesel Injections in CNG/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0755
Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effects of Hot EGR on the Operation of Natural Gas Engine Ignited by Diesel-Butanol Blends

2017-03-28
2017-01-0760
Butanol, which is a renewable biofuel, has been regarded as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. When blended with diesel and applied to pilot ignited natural gas engines, butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency. However, high blend ratio of butanol is limited by its longer ignition delay caused by the higher latent heat and higher octane number, which restricts the improvement of emission characteristics. In this paper, the potential of increasing butanol blend ratio by adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is investigated. 3D CFD model based on a detailed kinetic mechanism was built and validated by experimental results of natural gas engine ignited by diesel/butanol blends. The effects of hot EGR is then revealed by the simulation results of the combustion process, heat release traces and also the emissions under different diesel/butanol blend ratios.
Technical Paper

An Efficient and Unified Combustion Model for CFD of SI and CI Engine Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0572
In this work, an efficient and unified combustion model is introduced to simulate the flame propagation, diffusion-controlled combustion, and chemically-driven ignition in both SI and CI engine operation. The unified model is constructed upon a G-equation model which addresses the premixed flame propagation. The concept of the Livengood-Wu integral is used with tabulated ignition delay data to account for the chemical kinetics which is responsible for the spontaneous ignition of fuel-air mixture. A set of rigorously defined operations are used to couple the evolution of the G scalar field and the Livengood-Wu integral. The diffusion-controlled combustion is simulated equivalent to applying the Burke-Schumann limit. The combined model is tested in the simulation of the premixed SI combustion in a constant volume chamber, as well as the CI combustion in a conventional small bore diesel engine.
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