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Technical Paper

Engine Controller for the Hydrocarbon Reduction During Cold Start in SI Engine

In order to reduce hydrocarbon emission in gasoline engine, especially during warming-up period, it is necessary to estimate the fuel and fuel product flow rate in the emission gas. The intake airflow rate should also be estimated. A strategy was proposed to estimate air fuel ratio in a spark ignition engine. The mass of air in the cylinder was determined by filling-emptying method, and the fuel in the intake manifold and cylinder was estimated by the “wall-wetting” effect calculation. The use of graphical dynamic system control software is becoming more popular as automotive engineers strive to reduce the time to develop new control systems. The rapid prototype engine controller has been developed by using MATLAB, SIMULINK, REAL TIME WORKSHOP, xPC Target, and WATCOM C++. The sensor data from the engine will be transferred to computer, and the fuel delivery will be calculated.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation Characteristics in a Heavy Duty LPG Engine with Liquid Phase Port Injection

Combustion and flame propagation characteristics of the liquid phase LPG injection (LPLI) engine were investigated in a single cylinder optical engine. Lean burn operation is needed to reduce thermal stress of exhaust manifold and engine knock in a heavy duty LPG engine. An LPLI system has advantages on lean operation. Optimized engine design parameters such as swirl, injection timing and piston geometry can improve lean burn performance with LPLI system. In this study, the effects of piston geometry along with injection timing and swirl ratio on flame propagation characteristics were investigated. A series of bottom-view flame images were taken from direct visualization using a UV intensified high-speed CCD camera. Concepts of flame area speed, in addition to flame propagation patterns and thermodynamic heat release analysis, was introduced to analyze the flame propagation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Conditions on Catalytic Converter Temperature in an SI Engine

To meet stringent emission standards, a considerable amount of development work is necessary to ensure suitable efficiency and durability of catalyst systems. The main challenge is to reduce the engine cold-start emissions. Close-coupled catalyst (CCC) provides fast light-off time by utilizing the energy in the exhaust gas. However, if some malfunction occurred during engine operation and the catalyst temperature exceeds 1050°C, the catalytic converter becomes deactivated and shows poor conversion efficiency. Close-coupled catalyst temperature was investigated under various engine operating conditions. All of the experiments were conducted with a 1.0L SI engine at 1500-4000 rpm. The engine was operated at no load to full load conditions. Exhaust gas temperature and catalyst temperature were measured as a function of lambda value (0.8-1.2), ignition timing (BTDC 30°-ATDC 30°) and misfire rates (0-28%).
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Breathing Characteristics on the Performance in Spark-Ignition Engines

Adaptive valve timing control is one of the promising techniques to accomplish the optimized mixture formation and combustion depending on the load and speed, which is needed to meet the future challenges of reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The behavior and the effect of adaptive valve timing control system has been investigated by computer simulation, which simulates the gas dynamics in engines. These programs are typically one-dimensional including complex flow features as ‘special’ boundaries. A code adopting 2-step Lax-Wendroff method with artificial damping terms called FCT(Flux Corrected Transport), was developed to investigate the influence of operational and design parameters on the performance of engines. The effects of adaptive valve timing control system on volumetric efficiency or engine torque, and pumping loss were investigated. It increased low end torque by about 6%, and reduced pumping loss drastically at low load, high engine speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Development of VCO Nozzles for High Pressure Direct-Injection

Spray characteristics of diesel fuel injection is one of the most important factors in diesel combustion and pollutant emissions especially in HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines where the interval between the evaporation of atomized fuel and the onset of combustion is relatively short. An investigation into various spray characteristics from different holes of VCO nozzles was performed and its results were compared to standard sac nozzle. The global characteristics of spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration, and spray pattern were measured from the spray images which were frozen by an instantaneous photography with a spark light source. For better understanding of spray behavior, SMD of the fuel sprays from each hole in the multi hole nozzles were measured with back light imaging while the sprays from the other holes were covered by a purpose-built nozzle cap.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Gas Fueled SI Engine under Lean Burn Conditions

The concentrations of individual exhaust hydrocarbon species were measured as a function of air-fuel ratio and EGR in a 2-liter four-cylinder engine using a gas chromatography, for natural gas and LPG. NMHC in addition to the species of HC, other emissions such as CO2, CO and NOx were at 1800rpm for two compression ratios (8.6 and 10.6) and various EGR ratios up to 7%. Fuel conversion efficiencies were also investigated together with emissions to study the effect of engine parameters on the combustion performances in gas engines especially under the lean burn conditions. It was found that CO2 emission decreased leaner mixture strength, the higher compression ratio and certainly with smaller C value of fuel. HC emissions from LPG engine consisted primarily of propane (larger 60%), ethylene and propylene, while main emissions from natural gas were methane (larger than 60%), ethane, ethylene and propane on the average.
Technical Paper

Gas Flows Through the Inter-Ring Crevice and Their Influence on UHC Emissions

Influence of the inter-ring crevice, the volume between the top and second piston rings, on unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission was experimentally and numerically investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to estimate the level of UHC emission induced by the blow-up of inter-ring mixture, i.e., unburned gases trapped in the inter-ring crevice. In the experiments, the inter-ring mixture was extracted to the crankcase during the late period of expansion and the early period of exhaust stroke through the engraved grooves on the lower part of cylinder wall. Extraction of the mixture resulted in the significant reductions of UHC emission in proportion to the increments of blowby flow rate, without any losses in efficiency and power. This experimental study has confirmed the importance of inter-ring crevice on UHC emission in an SI engine and established a relationship between the inter-ring mixture and UHC emission.