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Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Temperature Diesel Combustion with Various Dilution Gases

2007-04-16
2007-01-0126
The effects of intake dilution with various dilution gases including nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide on low temperature diesel combustion were investigated in a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine to understand the mechanism of the simultaneous reductions in smoke and NOx with ultra-high EGR. NOx almost completely disappears with the intake oxygen concentration diluted below 16% regardless of the kind of dilution gas. Smoke emissions decrease with increased heat capacity of the charged gas due to promotion of mixture homogeneity with longer ignition delays. Intake dilution with the 36% CO2 + 64% Ar mixture which has a similar specific heat capacity as N2 shows lower smoke emissions than with N2. Chemical kinetics analysis shows that carbon dioxide may help to reduce NOx and soot by lowering the reaction temperature as well as by changing the concentrations of some radicals or/and species related to soot and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in a Low Compression Ratio DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1526
In a DI diesel engine, THC emissions increase significantly with lower compression ratios, a low coolant temperature, or during the transient state. During the transient after a load increase, THC emissions are increased significantly to very high concentrations from just after the start of the load increase until around the 10th cycle, then rapidly decreased until the 20th cycle, before gradually decreasing to a steady state value after 1000 cycles. In the fully-warmed steady state operation with a compression ratio of 16 and diesel fuel, THC is reasonably low, but THC increases with lower coolant temperatures or during the transient period just after increasing the load. This THC increase is due to the formation of over-lean mixture with the longer ignition delay and also due to the fuel adhering to the combustion chamber walls. A low distillation temperature fuel such as normal heptane can eliminate the THC increase.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Smokeless Low Temperature Diesel Combustion in Various Fuel-Air Mixing and Expansion of Operating Load Range

2009-04-20
2009-01-1449
The characteristics of smokeless low temperature diesel combustion in various fuel-air mixing was investigated by engine tests with high rates of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), three compression ratios, and fuels of various cetane numbers, as well as by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the in-cylinder distributions of mixture concentration and temperature. The results show that besides combustion temperature, fuel-air mixing is also vital to efficient, smokeless, and low NOx diesel combustion. Smokeless and low NOx diesel combustion can be realized even with insufficient fuel-air mixing as long as the combustion temperature is sufficiently low. However low combustion temperature and insufficient oxygen due to ultra-high EGR cause very high UHC and CO emissions, and a severe deterioration in combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

1987-09-01
871612
Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Combustion in Low Oxygen Mixtures with Ultra-High EGR

2006-04-03
2006-01-1147
Ultra-low NOx and smokeless operation at higher loads up to half of the rated torque is attempted with large ratios of cold EGR. NOx decreases below 6 ppm (0.05 g/(kW·h)) and soot significantly increases when first decreasing the oxygen concentration to 16% with cold EGR, but after peaking at 12-14% oxygen, soot then deceases sharply to essentially zero at 9-10% oxygen while maintaining ultra low NOx and regardless of fuel injection quantity. However, at higher loads, with the oxygen concentration below 9-10%, the air/fuel ratio has to be over-rich to exceed half of rated torque, and thermal efficiency, CO, and THC deteriorate significantly. As EGR rate increases, exhaust gas emissions and thermal efficiency vary with the intake oxygen content rather than with the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Effects of Metallic Fuel Additives on Oxidation Characteristics of Trapped Diesel Soot

1988-09-01
881224
The oxidations of Crapped diesel soots containing catalytic metals such as Ca, Ba, Fe, or Ni were characterized through thermogravimetric analysis with a thermobalance. Soot particles were generated by a single cylinder IDI diesel engine with metallic fuel additives. A two-stage oxidation process was observed with the metalcontalning soots. It was found that the first stage of oxidation is catalytically promoted by metal additives resulting in an enhanced reaction rate and a reduced activation energy. Soot reduction in the rapid first stage increases with increases in metal content. Soots containing Ba and Ca are oxidized most rapidly due to the larger reduction during the first stage. The second stage of oxidation is also slightly promoted by metal addition. The ignition temperature of the collected soot is substantially reduced by the metal additives.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Trade-off between Soot and Nitrogen Oxides in Diesel-Like Combustion by Chemical Kinetic Calculation

2011-08-30
2011-01-1847
This study makes use of the detailed mechanisms of n-heptane combustion, from gas reactions to soot particle formation and oxidation, and a two-stage model based on the CHEMKIN reactor network is developed and used to investigate the trade-off between soot and NOx emissions. The effects of the equivalence ratio, EGR, ambient pressure and temperature, and initial particle diameter are observed for various residence times. The results show that high rates of NOx formation are unavoidable under conditions where high reduction rates of soot particles are obtained. This suggests that suppression of the amount of soot during the formation stage is essential for simultaneous reductions in engine-out soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Transient DPF Pressure Drop under Cold Start Conditions in Diesel Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2372
To monitor emission-related components/systems and to evaluate the presence of malfunctioning or failures that can affect emissions, current diesel engine regulations require the use of on-board diagnostics (OBD). For diesel particulate filters (DPF), the pressure drop across the DPF is monitored by the OBD as the pressure drop is approximately linear related to the soot mass deposited in a filter. However, sudden acceleration may cause a sudden decrease in DPF pressure drop under cold start conditions. This appears to be caused by water that has condensed in the exhaust pipe, but no detailed mechanism for this decrease has been established. The present study developed an experimental apparatus that reproduces rapid increases of the exhaust gas flow under cold start conditions and enables independent control of the amount of water as well as the gas flow rate supplied to the DPF.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Stable and Clean Combustion Over a Wide Operating Range in a Spark-Assisted IDI Diesel Engine with Neat Ethanol

1984-02-01
840517
Spark-assisted diesel engines operated with alcohol fuels usually display misfiring or knocking problems. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a swirl chamber diesel engine with a multi-spark ignitor. In the experiments, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations and the degree of knocking were investigated by changing engine parameters over a wide operating range. The results of the investigations showed that stable ignition and smooth combustion is achieved when a flammable mixture is formed in the vicinity of the spark plug when only a small amount of the injected fuel has evaporated. By optimizing the design factors, operation with high efficiency and low exhaust emissions was achieved.
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