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Journal Article

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

With the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the still uncertain long-term solution for vehicle transportation, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) appear to be a viable short-term solution and are of increasing interest to car manufacturers. Like HEVs, PHEVs offer two power sources that are able to independently propel the vehicle. They also offer additional electrical energy onboard. In addition to choices about the size of components for PHEVs, choices about powertrain configuration must be made. In this paper, we consider three potential architectures for PHEVs for 10- and 40-mi All Electric Range (AER) and define the components and their respective sizes to meet the same set of performance requirements. The vehicle and component efficiencies in electric-only and charge-sustaining modes will be assessed.
Technical Paper

Midsize and SUV Vehicle Simulation Results for Plug-In HEV Component Requirements

Because Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) substitute electrical power from the utility grid for fuel, they have the potential to reduce petroleum use significantly. However, adoption of PHEVs has been hindered by expensive, low-energy batteries. Recent improvements in Li-ion batteries and hybrid control have addressed battery-related issues and have brought PHEVs within reach. The FreedomCAR Office of Vehicle Technology has a program that studies the potential benefit of PHEVs. This program also attempts to clarify and refine the requirements for PHEV components. Because the battery appears to be the main technical barrier, both from a performance and cost perspective, the main efforts have been focused on that component. Working with FreedomCAR energy storage and vehicle experts, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) researchers have developed a process to define the requirements of energy storage systems for plug-in applications.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Results of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions of Selected Vehicle/Fuel Systems

A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The new GREET version has up-to-date information regarding energy use and emissions for fuel production activities and vehicle operations. In this study, a complete WTW evaluation targeting energy use, greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O), and typical criteria air pollutants (VOC, NOX, and PM10) includes the following fuel options-gasoline, diesel, and hydrogen; and the following vehicle technologies-spark-ignition engines with or without hybrid configurations, compression-ignition engines with hybrid configurations, and hydrogen fuel cells with hybrid configurations.
Technical Paper

Axial Flux Variable Gap Motor: Application in Vehicle Systems

Alternative electric motor geometry with potentially increased efficiency is being considered for hybrid electric vehicle applications. An axial flux motor with a dynamically adjustable air gap (i.e., mechanical field weakening) has been tested, analyzed, and modeled for use in a vehicle simulation tool at Argonne National Laboratory. The advantage of adjusting the flux is that the motor torque-speed characteristics can better match the vehicle load. The challenge in implementing an electric machine with these qualities is to develop a control strategy that takes advantage of the available efficiency improvements without using excessive energy to mechanically adjust the air gap and thus reduce the potential energy savings. Motor efficiency was mapped in terms of speed, torque, supply voltage, and rotor-to-stator air gap.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Modal Energy and Emissions Model into a PNGV Vehicle Simulation Model, PSAT

This paper describes the integration of a Modal Energy and Emissions Model (MEEM) into a hybrid-electric vehicle simulation model, the PNGV System Analytic Toolkits (PSAT). PSAT is a forward-looking computer simulation model for advanced-technology vehicles. MEEM is a vehicle fuel-consumption and emissions model developed by one of the authors for internal-combustion-engine (ICE) -powered vehicles. MEEM engine simulation module uses a power-demand physical model based on a parameterized analytical representation of engine fuel and emissions production. One major advantage of MEEM is that it does not rely on steady-state engine maps, which are usually not available for most production vehicles; rather, it depends on a list of engine parameters that are calibrated based on regular vehicle dynamometer testing. The integrated PSAT-MEEM model can be used effectively to predict fuel consumption and emissions of various ICE-powered vehicles with both conventional and hybrid power trains.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Impacts of Propulsion System/Fuel Alternatives for Tripled Fuel-Economy Vehicles

This paper presents the results of Argonne National Laboratory's assessment of the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of 13 combinations of fuels and propulsion systems that are potential candidates for light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles). These vehicles are being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Eleven fuels were considered: reformulated gasoline (RFG), reformulated diesel (RFD), methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), biodiesel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and hydrogen. RFG, methanol, ethanol, LPG, CNG and LNG were assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection (SIDI) engines. RFD, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biodiesel and dimethyl ether were assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engines. Hydrogen, RFG and methanol were assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles.