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Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure Reactive Piston to Control Diesel PCCI Operation - A Modeling Study

The heavy-duty diesel engine industry is required to meet stringent emission standards. There is also the demand for more fuel efficient engines by the customer. In a previous study on an engine with variable intake valve closure timing, the authors found that an early single injection and accompanying premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion provides advantages in emissions and fuel economy; however, unacceptably high peak pressures and rates of pressure-rise impose a severe operating constraint. The use of a Pressure Reactive Piston assembly (PRP) as a means to limit peak pressures is explored in the present work. The concept is applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine and genetic algorithms (GA) are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to provide an optimized set of operating variables.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Soot Model

Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Large Diesel Engine via Spin Spray Combustion*

A numerical simulation and optimization study was conducted for a medium speed direct injection diesel engine. The engine's operating characteristics were first matched to available experimental data to test the validity of the numerical model. The KIVA-3V ERC CFD code was then modified to allow independent spray events from two rows of nozzle holes. The angular alignment, nozzle hole size, and injection pressure of each set of nozzle holes were optimized using a micro-genetic algorithm. The design fitness criteria were based on a multi-variable merit function with inputs of emissions of soot, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons, and fuel consumption targets. Penalties to the merit function value were used to limit the maximum in-cylinder pressure and the burned gas temperature at exhaust valve opening. The optimization produced a 28.4% decrease in NOx and a 40% decrease in soot from the baseline case, while giving a 3.1% improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of the Effects of Radiation and Soot Deposition in Heavy-duty Diesel Engines

A radiation model based on the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) was incorporated into the KIVA3v multidimensional code to study the effects of soot and radiation on diesel engine performance at high load. A thermophoretic soot deposition model was implemented to predict soot concentrations in the near-wall region, which was found to affect radiative heat flux levels. Realistic, non-uniform combustion chamber wall surface temperature distributions were predicted using a finite-element-based heat conduction model for the engine metal components that was coupled with KIVA3v in an iterative scheme. The more accurate combustion chamber wall temperatures enhanced the accuracy of both the radiation and soot deposition models as well as the convective heat transfer model. For a basline case, (1500 rev/min, 100% load) it was found that radiation can account for as much as 30% of the total wall heat loss and that soot deposition in each cycle is less than 3% of the total in-cylinder soot.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Emissions and Fuel Consumption in a 2-Stroke Direct Injection Engine with Multidimensional Modeling and an Evolutionary Search Technique

An optimization study combining multidimensional CFD modeling and a global, evolutionary search technique known as the Genetic Algorithm has been carried out. The subject of this study was a 2-stroke, spark-ignited, direct-injection, single-cylinder research engine (SCRE). The goal of the study was to optimize the part load operating parameters of the engine in order to achieve the lowest possible emissions, improved fuel economy, and reduced wall heat transfer. Parameters subject to permutation in this study were the start-of-injection (SOI) timing, injection duration, spark timing, fuel injection angle, dwell between injections, and the percentage of fuel mass in the first injection pulse. The study was comprised of three cases. All simulations were for a part load, intermediate-speed condition representing a transition operating regime between stratified charge and homogeneous charge operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study uses a numerical model to investigate the effects of flow turbulence on premixed iso-octane HCCI engine combustion. Different levels of in-cylinder turbulence are generated by using different piston geometries, namely a disc-shape versus a square-shape bowl. The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver. A detailed reaction mechanism is used to simulate the fuel chemistry. It is found that turbulence has significant effects on HCCI combustion. In the current engine setup, the main effect of turbulence is to affect the wall heat transfer, and hence to change the mixture temperature which, in turn, influences the ignition timing and combustion duration. The model also predicts that the combustion duration in the square bowl case is longer than that in the disc piston case which agrees with the measurements.
Technical Paper

Premixed Diesel Combustion Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Optimizations were performed on a Heavy-Duty diesel engine equipped with a conventional electronic unit injector in order to minimize fuel consumption, and emissions of NOx and particulate matter. A low speed light load case and a high speed light load case were optimized with these considerations in mind. Exhaustive parametric studies were performed in order to find sets of operating conditions that resulted in low emissions and high fuel economy. It was found for the low speed light load case (Mode 2, 25% load and 821 rev/min) that low emissions operating conditions existed at either very early or very late start-of-injection timings and high EGR (PM = 0.018 g/kW-hr, NOx + HC = 1.493 g/kW-hr with SOI = -21 degrees ATDC, 48% EGR; or 0.085 g/kW-hr PM, 1.02 g/kW-hr NOx with SOI = 4 degrees ATDC, 39% EGR).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Split Injection and Swirl on a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

To overcome the trade-off between NOx and particulate emissions for future diesel vehicles and engines it is necessary to seek methods to lower pollutant emissions. The desired simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency for future DI (Direct Injection) diesels is also a difficult challenge due to the combustion modifications that will be required to meet the exhaust emission mandates. This study demonstrates the emission reduction capability of split injections, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and other parameters on a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system using an RSM (Response Surface Method) optimization method. The optimizations were conducted at 1757 rev/min, 45% load. Six factors were considered for the optimization, namely the EGR rate, SOI (Start of Injection), intake boost pressure, and injection pressure, the percentage of fuel in the first injection, and the dwell between injections.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Split Injections on DISI Engine Performance

A spray model for pressure-swirl atomizers that is based on a linearized instability analysis of liquid sheets has been combined with an ignition and combustion model for stratified charge spark ignition engines. The ignition model has been advanced, such that the presence of dual spark plugs can now be accounted for. Independent validation of the spray model is achieved by investigating a pressure-swirl injector inside a pressure bomb containing air at ambient temperature. In a second step, the complete model is used to estimate the performance of a small marine DISI Two-Stroke engine operating in stratified charge mode. Simulation results and experimental data are compared for several different injection timings and the agreement is generally good such that there is confidence in the predictive quality of the combustion model. Finally the model is applied in a conceptual study to investigate possible benefits of split injections.
Technical Paper

Development of an Ignition and Combustion Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

A new ignition and combustion model has been developed and tested for use in premixed spark-ignition engines. The ignition model is referred to as the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model, and it uses Lagrangian markers to track the flame-front growth. The model includes the effects of electrode heat transfer on the early flame kernel growth process, and it is used in conjunction with a characteristic-time-scale combustion model once the ignition kernel has grown to a size where the effects of turbulence on the flame must be considered. A new term which accounts for the effect of air-fuel ratio, was added to the combustion model for modeling combustion in very lean and very rich mixtures. The flame kernel size predicted by the DPIK model was compared with measurements of Maly and Vogel. Furthermore, predictions of the electrode heat transfer were compared with data of Kravchik and Heywood. In both comparisons the model predictions were in good agreement with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Two-Color Imaging of In-Cylinder Soot Concentration and Temperature in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine with Comparison to Multidimensional Modeling for Single and Split Injections

Two-Color imaging optics were developed and used to observe soot emission processes in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail, electronically-controlled, high-pressure fuel injection system that is capable of up to four injection pulses per engine cycle. The engine was instrumented with an endoscope system for optical access for the combustion visualization. Multidimensional combustion and soot modeling results were used for comparisons to enhance the understanding and interpretation of the experimental data. Good agreement between computed and measured cylinder pressures, heat release and soot and NOx emissions was achieved. In addition, good qualitative agreement was found between in-cylinder soot concentration (KL) and temperature fields obtained from the endoscope images and those obtained from the multidimensional modeling.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Engine Combustion Chamber Surface Temperatures

A two-dimensional transient Heat Conduction in Components code (HCC) was successfully set up and extensively used to calculate the temperature field existing in real engine combustion chambers. The Saul'yev method, an explicit, unconditionally stable finite difference method, was used in the code. Consideration of the gasket between the cylinder wall and head, and the air gap between the piston and liner were included in the code. The realistic piston bowl shape was modeled with a grid transformation and piston movement was considered. The HCC code was used to calculate the wall temperature of an Isuzu ceramic engine and a Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine. The code was combined with the KIVA-II code in an iterative loop, in which the KIVA-II code provided the instantaneous local heat flux on the combustion chamber surfaces, and the HCC code computed the time-averaged wall temperature distribution on the surfaces.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Modeling of Pilot Injection and Combustion in Diesel Engines

An endoscope-based image acquisition-and-processing camera system was used for diagnostics of pilot injection combustion in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. A study of the pilot injection or light load is of interest because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in full injection cases. This allows the spray process to be decoupled from the combustion process. The experimental cases were modeled using a version of the KIVA-II code that includes improvements in the turbulence, wall heat transfer, spray, ignition and combustion models. Pilot injections of three different amounts (10, 15 and 20% of the fuel injected at 75% load and 1600 RPM) at different start-of-injection timings were studied. The imaging system included an endoscope, an intensified CID camera, a frame grabber and the control circuitry.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-injection in a Diesel Engine

Engine experiments have shown that with high-pressure multiple injections (two or more injection pulses per power cycle), the soot-NOx trade-off curves of a diesel engine can be shifted closer to the origin than those with the conventional single-pulse injections, reducing both soot and NOx emissions significantly. In order to understand the mechanism of emissions reduction, multidimensional computations were carried out for a heavy-duty diesel engine with multiple injections. Different injection schemes were considered, and the predicted cylinder pressure, heat release rate and soot and NOx emissions were compared with measured data. Excellent agreements between predictions and measurements were achieved after improvements in the models were made. The improvements include using a RNG k-ε turbulence model, adopting a new wall heat transfer model and introducing the nozzle discharge coefficient to account for the contraction of fuel jet at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Progress Towards Diesel Combustion Modeling

Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Computation of Multicomponent Spray Vaporization and Combustion

The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of multicomponent fuel droplet vaporization on diesel engine performance under both standard and cold-starting conditions. The code has also been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, and a crevice flow model. The baseline computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system. The effect of multicomponent fuel droplet vaporization is studied, with particular attention to the effects of the injection ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Toward Predictive Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

The development of analytic models of diesel engine flow, combustion and subprocesses is described. The models are intended for use as design tools by industry for the prediction of engine performance and emissions to help reduce engine development time and costs. Part of the research program includes performing engine experiments to provide validation data for the models. The experiments are performed on a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 engine that is equipped with state-of-the-art high pressure electronic fuel injection and emissions instrumentation. In-cylinder gas velocity and gas temperature measurements have also been made to characterize the flows in the engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel Engine Intake Flow and Combustion Modeling

The three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model and preliminary soot modeling results are described. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme has been developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and initial computations have been made of intake flow in the manifold and combustion chamber of a two-intake-valve engine.