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Technical Paper

Lean Burn Performance of a Natural Gas Fuelled, Port Injected, Spark Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0822
This paper presents a study of the performance of a lean burn, natural gas-fuelled, naturally aspirated, spark ignition engine for an E class vehicle. Engine performance and exhaust emissions (NO, CO, and UHC) data are first discussed. An energy balance of the engine operating at different loads and air-fuel ratios is then presented, and used to explain why engine efficiency varies with air-fuel ratio. Finally, the hot start drive cycle CO2e (CO2 equivalent) emissions are estimated for a vehicle with this engine. This shows a potential for significant reduction in vehicle greenhouse gas emissions compared to an equivalent gasoline-fuelled vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Collins Scotch Yoke Engine as a Compact Alternative - A Theoretical Comparison of Features of Scotch Yoke and Conventional Engines

1995-02-01
950091
The application of a Scotch Yoke crank mechanism to a reciprocating internal combustion engine reduces the engine's size and weight and, with the sinusoidal piston motion it provides, it changes the combustion parameters and simplifies the requirements for perfect balancing of the engine. This paper makes a theoretical comparison between conventional and Scotch Yoke engines with dimensional similarity of individual components where possible such as bore and stroke, and justifiable differences appropriate to each engine design such as cylinder bore off-set, piston height, connecting rod length etc. Included are variations related to differences in piston motion (true sinusoidal versus conventional) such as exhaust emissions and balancing requirements.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

The Performance and Emissions of the Turbocharged Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (TC-ALSI) Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1235
This paper extends previous development of the ALSI concept, by investigating the performance delivered with a turbocharged version of this engine. The research is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using hydrogen, LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used extensively for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is the wide ranging evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean limit mixture shift of more than one unit of lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The paper describes the capability of the ultra lean burn spark ignition engine with the mild boost needed provided by a Honeywell turbocharger.
Journal Article

Mixture Preparation Effects on Gaseous Fuel Combustion in SI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0323
This paper presents a comparison of the influence of different mixture preparation strategies on gaseous fuel combustion in SI engines. Three mixture preparation strategies are presented for a dedicated LPG fuelled engine, showing varying results - gaseous phase port injection (PFI-G), liquid-phase port injection (PFI-L) and gaseous-phase throttle-body injection (TBI-G). Previous work by the authors has shown considerable differences in emissions and thermal efficiency between different fuelling strategies. This paper extends this work to the area of combustion characteristics and lean limit operation and closer analyses the differences between these systems. A dedicated LPG in-line six cylinder engine with compression ratio increased to 11.7:1 (up from the standard 9.65:1) was tested over a range of speed/torque conditions representing most of the steady-state parts of the Euro drive-cycle for light duty-vehicles. The air-fuel ratio was varied from lambda 1.0 to the lean limit.
Technical Paper

Gas Assisted Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean LPG in a Spark Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0506
Gas assisted jet ignition is an advanced prechamber ignition process that allows ignition of ultra lean mixtures in an otherwise standard spark ignition engine. The results presented in this paper indicate that in a gas assisted jet ignition system fuelled with LPG in both the main chamber and prechamber, the lean limit can be extended to between λ = 2-2.35, depending on the load and speed. Although the fuel combinations that employ H2 as the prechamber fuel can extend the lean limit furthest (λ = 2.5-2.6), the extension enabled by the LPG-LPG prechamber-main chamber combination provides lower NOx emission levels at similar λ. In addition, when LPG is employed in place of gasoline as the main chamber fuel, hydrocarbon emissions are significantly reduced, however with a slight penalty in indicated mean effective pressure due to the gaseous state of the LPG.
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