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Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
Journal Article

Influence of Ca-, Mg- and Na-Based Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

One issue of downsized and supercharged engines is low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs in the low-speed and high-load operating region. One proposed cause of LSPI is the influence of the engine oil and its additives. However, the effect of engine oil additives on pre-ignition and the mechanism involved are still not fully understood. This study investigated the influence of engine oil additives on abnormal combustion in a spark-ignition engine. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine with a side valve arrangement was used in conducting combustion experiments. The research methods used were in-cylinder pressure analysis, in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic analysis. Engine oil additives were mixed individually at a fixed concentration into a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 50 and their effect on knocking was investigated.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Journal Article

Effect of Streamer Discharge Assist on Combustion in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest in recent years as a clean, high-efficiency combustion system. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in HCCI engines because they lack a physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue of HCCI engines is their narrow operating range because of misfiring that occurs at low loads and abnormal combustion at high loads. As a possible solution to these issues, this study focused on the application of a streamer discharge in the form of non-equilibrium plasma as a technique for assisting HCCI combustion. Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with an ignition electrode in the combustion chamber. A streamer discharge was continuously generated in the cylinder during a 720-degree interval from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Application of Newly Developed Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine

A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. CLF was made from woods by direct liquefaction process. When neat CLF was supplied to diesel engine, the compression ignition did not occur, so that blend of CLF and diesel fuel was used. The engine could be operated when the mixing ratio of CLF was up to 35 wt%. CO, HC and NOx emissions were almost the same as those of diesel fuel when the mixing ratio of CLF was less than 20 wt% whereas the thermal efficiency slightly decreases with increase in CLF mixing ratio.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio on HCCI Combustion Characteristics using In-cylinder Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Operating on DME and Methane

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has attracted much interest in recent years because it can simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing with this type of engine because it has no physical ignition mechanism. Varying the amount of fuel supplied changes the operating load and the ignition timing also changes simultaneously. The HCCI combustion process also has the problem that combustion proceeds too rapidly. This study examined the possibility of separating ignition timing control and load control using an HCCI engine that was operated on blended test fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane, which have vastly different ignition characteristics. The influence of the mixing ratios of these two test fuels on the rapidity of combustion was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Characteristics of HCCI Combustion and ATAC Combustion Using the Same Test Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a new combustion concept for internal combustion engines. On the other hand, two combustion concepts proposed for two-cycle spark-ignition (SI) engines are Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) and Activated Radical (AR) combustion. The authors undertook this study to examine the similarities and differences between HCCI combustion and ATAC (AR) combustion. Differences in the low-temperature oxidation reaction behavior between these two combustion processes were made clear using one test engine.
Journal Article

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using a Blended Fuel

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted much interest as a combustion system that can achieve both low emissions and high efficiency. But the operating region of HCCI combustion is narrow, and it is difficult to control the auto-ignition timing. This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging. The blended fuel consisted of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as alternative fuel for compression-ignition engines, and methane, the main component of natural gas. A spectroscopic technique was used to measure the light emission of the combustion flame in the combustion chamber in order to ascertain the combustion characteristics. HCCI combustion characteristics were analyzed in detail in the present study by measuring this light emission spectrum.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Intermediate Combustion Products in Preflame Reactions in a Spark-Ignition Engine

The use of a higher compression ratio is desirable for improving the thermal efficiency and specific power of spark-ignition engines, but it gives rise to a problem of engine knock. In the present research, an investigation was made of the role of the preflame reaction region of a spark-ignition engine in the occurrence of autoignition. Emission spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of formaldehyde (HCHO) in a cool flame. In addition, measure the behavior of the faint light attributed to the HCO radical in a blue flame with the concurrent measurement of the OH radical. The emission waveforms measurements obtained for HCHO when n-heptane (ORON) was used as the fuel, It is thought that these tendencies correspond to the passage and degeneracy of a cool flame. Further, the emission waveforms measured for the HCO radical when blended fuels (6ORON, 8ORON) were correspond to that of a blue flame.
Journal Article

Analysis of Interaction between Autoignition and Strong Pressure Wave Formation during Knock in a Supercharged SI Engine Based on High Speed Photography of the End Gas

Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
Journal Article

Analysis of Combustion Characteristics and Efficiency Improvement of a Supercharged HCCI Engine Achieved by Using the Different Ignition Characteristics of Gaseous Fuels

This study focused on the use of a two-component fuel blend and supercharging as possible means of overcoming these issues of HCCI combustion. Low-carbon gaseous fuels with clean emissions were used as the test fuels. The specific fuels used were dimethyl ether (DME, cetane number of 55 or higher) that autoignites easily And exhibits pronounced low-temperature oxidation reactions, methane (cetane number of 0) that does not autoignite readily and is the main component of natural gas which is regarded as petroleum substitute, and propane (cetane number of 5) that is a principal component of liquefied petroleum gas. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and methane produces a two-stage main combustion process under certain operating conditions, with the result that combustion is moderated.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Light Emission Intensity Behavior Corresponding to Intermediate Products in Different Places of the Combustion Chamber

Knocking is one phenomenon that can be cited as a factor impeding efforts to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines. With the aim of understanding knocking better, light emission spectroscopy was applied in this study to examine preflame reactions that can be observed prior to autoignition in the combustion reaction process of hydrocarbon fuels. Attention was focused on light emission behavior at wavelengths corresponding to those of formaldehyde (HCHO), Vaidya's hydrocarbon flame band (HCO) and the OH radical in a forced progression from normal combustion to a knocking state. Light emission behavior was measured simultaneously in the center and in the end zone of the combustion chamber when the engine was operated on two different test fuels. The test fuels used were n-heptane (0 RON) and a blended fuel (70 RON) consisting of n-heptane (0 RON) and iso-octane (100 RON).
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Conditions Producing Two-Stage Main Combustion Heat Release in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using a Gaseous Fuel Blend

In this study, a detailed analysis was made of supercharged HCCI combustion using a two-component fuel blend of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel, and methane. The quantity of fuel injected and boost pressure were varied to investigate the equivalence ratio and operating region conducive to optimal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that varying the boost pressure according to the engine load and applying a suitable equivalence ratio induced two-stage main combustion over a wide load range, making it possible to avoid excessively rapid combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
Technical Paper

A Study on Influence of Forced Over Cooling on Diesel Engine Performance

The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Producing Autoignition in an HCCI Engine Using In-Cylinder Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetic Simulation

This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Varying the Supercharging Pressure and Fuel Octane Number on Spark Ignition Engine Knocking using Spectroscopic Measurement and In-cylinder Visualization

Engine downsizing with a turbocharger / supercharger has attracted attention as a way of improving the fuel economy of automotive gasoline engines, but this approach can be frustrated by the occurrence of abnormal combustion. In this study, the factors causing abnormal combustion were investigated using a supercharged, downsized engine that was built by adding a mechanical supercharger. Combustion experiments were conducted in which the fuel octane number and supercharging pressure were varied while keeping the engine speed, equivalence ratio and intake air temperature constant. In the experiments, a visualization technique was applied to photograph combustion in the combustion chamber, absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the intermediate products of combustion, and the cylinder pressure was measured. The experimental data obtained simultaneously were then analyzed to examine the effects on combustion.