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Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion with Reduced Nozzle Orifice Diameter

Future emission legislation will require substantial reductions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. The combustion and emission formation in a diesel engine is governed mainly by spray formation and mixing. Important parameters governing these are droplet size, distribution, concentration and injection velocity. Smaller orifices are believed to give smaller droplet size, even with reduced injection pressure, which leads to better fuel atomization, faster evaporation and better mixing. In this paper experiments are performed on a single cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with three nozzles of different orifice diameters (Ø0.227 mm, Ø0.130 mm, Ø0.090 mm). Two loads (low and medium) and three speeds were investigated. The test results confirmed a substantial reduction in HC and soot emissions at lower loads for the small orifices.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Parameters on Deposit Formation and Emissions in a Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI Engine

This work investigates the influence of fuel parameters on deposit formation and emissions in a four-cylinder direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine. The engine tested is a commercial DISC engine with a wall-guided combustion system. The combustion chamber deposits (CCDs) were analyzed with gas chromatography / mass spectrometry as well as thickness and mass measurements. Intake valve deposits (IVDs) were analyzed for mass, while internal injector deposits were evaluated using spray photography. The CCD build-up was obtained with the CEC1 F-020-A-98 performance test for evaluation of the influence of fuels and additives on IVDs and CCDs in port fuel injected SI engines. The 60 h test is designed to simulate city driving. Four fuels were compared in the study: a base gasoline, with and without a fuel additive, a specially blended high volatility gasoline, and a fuel representing the worst case of European gasolines; neither of the latter two had additives.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating a SI-HCCI-SI Mode Change on a Volvo 5-Cylinder Electronic Valve Control Engine

Operating an engine in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode requires the air fuel mixture to be very lean or highly diluted with residuals. This is in order to slow the kinetics down and to avoid too rapid heat release. Consequently, the operational window for the engine in HCCI mode is not the same as for the engine operating in spark ignited (SI) mode. Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine mode, in this study, is accomplished by trapping residual mass using variable valve timing. With the residual trapping method, the engine cannot be started in HCCI mode and due to the dilution, the engine in HCCI mode can only be operated in the part - load regime. Hence, a mode change between spark ignited and HCCI modes, and vice versa is required. This study reports the development of a mode change strategy for a single cylinder camless engine, and its successful implementation in a camless multi cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion with Ultra-Low NOx and SOOT Emissions - A Comparison Between Experimental Data and CFD Simulations

Experiments were conducted with a single cylinder heavy duty research engine, based on the geometry of a Volvo Powertrain D12C production engine. For these tests the engine was configured with a low compression ratio, low swirl, common rail fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. The combustion process was visualized by video via an inserted endoscope. From the resulting images temperatures were evaluated with the two-color method. In addition, the combustion and emission formation were simulated using the multiple flamelet concept implemented in the commercial CFD code STAR-CD. The models used in this paper are considered state-of-the-art. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities offered by combining several methods in the evaluation of novel engine concepts. Therefore, results from the optical measurements, the CFD simulations and global emission experimental data were compared.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Needle Opening (NOP) Pressure on Combustion and Emissions Formation in a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

This paper presents an investigation of the effects of varying needle opening pressure (NOP) (375 to 1750 bar), engine speed (1000 rpm to 1800 rpm), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (0% to 20 %) on the combustion process, exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption at low (25 %) and medium (50 %) loads in a single cylinder heavy duty DI diesel research engine with a displacement of 2.02 l. The engine was equipped with an advanced two-actuator E3 Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) from Delphi Diesel, with a maximum injection pressure of 2000 bar. In previous versions of the EUI system, the peak injection pressure was a function of the injection duration, cam lift, and cam rate. The advanced EUI system allows electronic control of the needle opening and closing. This facilitates the generation of high injection pressures, independently of load and speed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Direct Injection of Urea as NOx Reduction Method for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

The effect of ammoniac deoxidizing agent (Urea) on the reduction of NOx produced in the Diesel engine was investigated numerically. Urea desolved in water was directly injected into the engine cylinder during the expansion stroke. The NOx deoxidizing process was described using a simplified chemical kinetic model coupled with the comprehensive kinetics of Diesel oil surrogate combustion. If the technology of DWI (Direct Water Injection) with the later injection timing is supposed to be used, the deoxidizing reactants could be delivered in a controlled amount directly into the flame plume zones, where NOx are forming. Numerical simulations for the Isotta Fraschini DI Diesel engine are carried out using the KIVA-3V code, modified to account for the “co-fuel” injection and reaction with combustion products. The results showed that the amount of NOx could be substantially reduced up to 80% with the injection timing and the fraction of Urea in the solution optimized.
Technical Paper

Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch, RME and Conventional Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This investigation includes a comparison of two Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuels derived from natural gas and a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) fuel with Swedish low sulfur Diesel in terms of emissions levels, fuel consumption and combustion parameters. The engine used in the study was an AVL single cylinder heavy-duty engine, equipped with a cylinder head of a Volvo D12 engine. Two loads (25% and 100%) were investigated at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm. The engine was calibrated to operate in different levels of EGR and with variable injections timings. A design of experiments was constructed to investigate the effects of these variables, and to identify optimal settings. The results showed that the soot emissions yielded by FT and RME fuels are up to 40 and 80 percent lower than those yielded by the Swedish Diesel. In addition the FT fuel gave slightly lower, and the RME significant higher NOx emissions than the Swedish Diesel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Charge Air and Fuel Injection Parameters on Combustion with High Levels of EGR in a HDDI Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

When increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to low temperature combustion, soot emissions first start to increase (due to reductions in soot oxidation), before decreasing to almost zero (due to very low rates of soot formation). At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are still low, but not low enough to comply with future emission standards. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the possibilities for moving the so-called “soot bump” (increase in soot) to higher EGR levels or reducing the magnitude of the soot bump. This involved an experimental investigation of parameters affecting the combustion and thus the engine-out emissions. The parameters investigated were: charge air pressure, injection pressure, EGR temperature and post injection (with different dwell times) for a wide range of EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Diesel Engine - an Experimental Study

Combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether, DME, have been investigated experimentally, in a heavy duty single cylinder engine equipped with an adapted common rail fuel injection system, and the effects of varying injection timing, rail pressure and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion and emission parameters. The results show that DME combustion does not produce soot and with the use of exhaust gas recirculation NOX emissions can also be reduced to very low levels. However, high injection pressure and/or a DME adopted combustion system is required to improve the mixing process and thus reduce the combustion duration and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using High Levels of EGR

The possibilities for extending the range of engine loads in which soot and NOx emissions can be minimised by using low temperature combustion in conjunction with high levels of EGR was investigated in a series of experiments with a single cylinder research engine. The results show that very low levels of both soot and NOx emissions can be achieved at engine loads up to 50 % by reducing the compression ratio to 14 and applying high levels of EGR (up to approximately 60 %). Unfortunately, the low temperature combustion is accompanied by increases in fuel consumption and emissions of both HC and CO. However, these drawbacks can be reduced by advancing the injection timing. The research engine was a 2 litre direct injected (DI), supercharged, heavy duty, single cylinder diesel engine with a geometry based on Volvo's 12 litre engine, and the amount of EGR was increased by adjusting the exhaust back pressure while keeping the charge air pressure constant.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Different Combustion Strategies for SI Engines in a Multi-Mode Combustion Engine

Future pressures to reduce the fuel consumption of passenger cars may require the exploitation of alternative combustion strategies for gasoline engines to replace, or use in combination with the conventional stoichiometric spark ignition (SSI) strategy. Possible options include homogeneous lean charge spark ignition (HLCSI), stratified charge spark ignition (SCSI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), all of which are intended to reduce pumping and thermal losses. In the work presented here four different combustion strategies were evaluated using the same engine: SSI, HLCSI, SCSI and HCCI. HLCSI was achieved by early injection and operating the engine lean, close to its stability limits. SCSI was achieved using the spray-guided technique with a centrally placed multi-hole injector and spark-plug. HCCI was achieved using a negative valve overlap to trap hot residuals and thus generate auto-ignition temperatures at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Split Injections at Low Load in an HDDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Piezo Injector

In order to investigate the effects of split injection on emission formation and engine performance, experiments were carried out using a heavy duty single cylinder diesel engine. Split injections with varied dwell time and start of injection were investigated and compared with single injection cases. In order to isolate the effect of the selected parameters, other variables were kept constant. In this investigation no EGR was used. The engine was equipped with a common rail injection system with a piezo-electric injector. To interpret the observed phenomena, engine CFD simulations using the KIVA-3V code were also made. The results show that reductions in NOx emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were achieved for short dwell times whereas they both were increased when the dwell time was prolonged. No EGR was used so the soot levels were already very low in the cases of single injections.
Technical Paper

The Volvo 3-Litre 6-Cylinder Engine with 4-Valve Technology

During 1990, the Volvo Car Corporation will Introduce a new In-line six-cylinder engine featuring three litre displacement, twin overhead camshafts and 24 valves, designated the B6304F. The engine has been designed and adapted for Volvo's top-of-the-line model 960, and it has been developed to meet the market's high demands on comfort, performance, reliability, economy and environmental friendliness. The engine has been designed and manufactured with the help of advanced CAE technology. The engine structure consists of five basic aluminium parts. This construction contributes to the low engine weight of 182 kg including auxiliary units, oil and wiring. The engine's gas flow has been optimized with the help of data simulation and laser measurement technology so as to ensure efficient utilization of energy. Fuel injection and ignition timing are regulated and controlled by an advanced electronic control system, the Bosch Motronic 1.8.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operation of a Passenger Car DI Diesel Engine with an Adjustable Valve Train

One of the problems encountered when operating Diesel engines in HCCI mode is a too early start of combustion, due to the low ignition resistance of Diesel fuels. Correct phasing of the combustion process requires a lower in-cylinder temperature during compression. One possibility of regulating the temperature is to adjust the intake valve closing timing and thus the effective compression ratio. A single cylinder research engine, configured as a passenger car type DI Common Rail Diesel engine, was fitted with a fully adjustable hydraulic valve train, which allowed free settings of the valve timing events. Premixed combustion was achieved by injecting the fuel during the compression stroke, prior to ignition, in multiple steps. Different combinations of intake valve closing timing and external EGR were tested as well as the possibility to use internal EGR for combustion control.
Technical Paper

Low Soot, Low NOx in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using High Levels of EGR

The objective of the study presented here was to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing soot and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine, using very high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). The investigation was carried out using a 2 litre DI single cylinder diesel engine. Two different EGR strategies were examined. One entailed maintaining a constant charge air pressure with a varied exhaust back pressure in order to change the amount of EGR. In the other strategy a constant pressure difference was maintained over the engine, resulting in different equivalence ratios at similar EGR levels. EGR levels of 60 % or more significantly reduced both soot and NOx emissions at 25 % engine load with constant charge air pressure and increasing exhaust back pressure. However, combustion under these conditions was incomplete, resulting in high emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and high fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Spray Shape and Atomization Quality of an Outward-Opening Piezo Gasoline DI Injector

The spray formation and consequent atomization of an outward opening piezo-electric gasoline DI injector have been experimentally investigated in a constant pressure spray chamber. The sizes and velocities of the droplets and the resulting spray shape were evaluated, under different boundary conditions, using Planar Mie scattering and Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in combination with Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) analyses and high-speed video photography. The use of piezo-electric actuation for gasoline DI injectors provides an additional means to control the atomization and spray shape that is not available with solenoid-driven injectors such as swirling and multi-hole type injectors. For instance, with piezo injectors up to four injections per cycle are possible, and the fuel flow rate can be controlled by adjusting needle lift. The captured high-speed video images show that a hollow-cone spray forms as the fuel exits the outward-opening nozzle.
Technical Paper

Improving the NOx/Fuel Economy Trade-Off for Gasoline Engines with the CCVS Combustion System

A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) in order to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a single cylinder manifold injected pent-roof four-valve gasoline engine. This system has been given the generic name Combustion Control by Vortex Stratification (CCVS). Preliminary research has shown that greatly improved fuel consumption is achievable at stoichiometric conditions compared to a conventional version of the same engine whilst retaining ULEV NOx levels. Simultaneously the combustion system has shown inherently low HC emissions compared to homogeneous EGR engines. A production viable variable air motion system has also been assessed which increases the effectiveness of the stratification whilst allowing full load refinement and retaining high performance.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Cylinder Pressure Based Knock Detection Methods

Eight different cylinder pressure trace based knock detection methods are compared using two reference cycles of different time-frequency content, reflecting single blast and developing blast, and a test population of 300 knocking cycles. It is shown that the choice of the pass window used for the pressure data has no significant effect on the results of the different methods, except for the KI20. In contrast to other authors, no sudden step in the knock characteristics is expected; first, because the data investigated contain only knocking cycles, and second, because a smooth transition between normal combustion and knock is expected, according to recent knock theory. It is not only the correlation coefficient, but also the Kendall coefficient of concordance, that is used to investigate the differences between the knock classification methods.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variation in an SI Engine Due to the Random Motion of the Flame Kernel

This paper reports an investigation of the association between flame kernel movement and cyclic variability and assesses the relative importance of this phenomenon, with all other parameters that show a cyclic variability held constant. The flame is assumed to be subjected to a “random walk” by the fluctuating velocity component of the flow field as long as it is of the order of or smaller than the integral scale. However, the mean velocity also imposes prefered convection directions on the flame kernel motion. Two-point LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements of mean velocity, turbulence intensity and integral length scale are used as input data to the simulations. A quasi-dimensional computer code with a moving flame center position is used to simulate the influence of these two components on the performance of an S I engine with a tumble-based combustion system.