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Technical Paper

The Dispersion of Pollutants from Aircraft

1971-02-01
710322
Two aspects of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft are reviewed. The first is the dispersal of aircraft exhaust emissions in the vicinity of airports; the second is the dispersal of exhaust trails in the upper atmosphere. Techniques available for modeling this dispersal and how they might be applied to the airport problem are discussed. Field studies of airport pollution are then reviewed to assess current pollutant levels around airports and the aircraft's contribution to those levels. The possibility of contrail formation from jet emissions at high altitude is then considered and the effect of uncertainties in the trail mixing processes evaluated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chamber Geometry on Spark-Ignition Engine Combustion

1983-02-01
830334
The way In which combustion chamber geometry affects combustion in SI engines was studied using a quasi-diraensional cycle simulation. Calculations were performed to investigate the following questions: (i) the sensitivity of geometric effects on combustion to engine operating conditions; (ii) the differences in burn duration between ten chamber geometries and spark plug locations; and (iii) the relative merits of improved chamber design and amplified turbulence as means to reduce burn duration. The results from these studies are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Characteristics on Combustion in a Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

1990-10-01
902063
An experimental study was conducted on a spark-ignited direct-injection engine burning fuels with different evaporation and autoignition characteristics. The test engine was a single-cylinder Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge (DISC) engine incorporating a combustion process similar to the Texaco Controlled Combustion System. Two fuels were tested and compared with a baseline gasoline fuel: diesel fuel, and gasoline mixed with an ignition improver. The tests were done at low to medium engine loads. Diesel fuel was found to have similar levels of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions as gasoline but had different characteristics. The optimum timing for diesel fuel was retarded from that for gasoline and combustion variability was much less with diesel than with gasoline. Gasoline with a commercial ignition improver normally used to increase the cetane number of diesel fuel was also tested. The effect of changing the autoignition quality of the fuel depended on the injector used.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Piston Temperature on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

1991-02-01
910558
Light-load unburned hydrocarbon emissions were studied experimentally in a spark-ignited direct-injection engine burning gasoline where the piston temperature was varied. The test engine was a single-cylinder Direct Injection Stratified-Charge (DISC) engine incorporating a combustion process similar to the Texaco Controlled Combustion System. At a single low load operating condition, the piston temperature was varied by 50 K by controlling the cooling water and oil temperature. The effect of this change on unburned hydrocarbon emissions and heat release profiles was studied. It was found that by carefully controlling the intake air temperature and pressure to maintain constant in-cylinder conditions at the time of injection, the change in piston temperature did not have a significant effect on the unburned hydrocarbon emissions from the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl on Combustion in a Pancake Chamber Spark Ignition Engine: The Case of Constant Inducted Kinetic Energy

1988-02-01
880200
This experimental investigation is an initial step in separating the influences of swirl and inducted kinetic energy on combustion in a homo - geneous charge engine. By rotation of the intake port about the axis of the intake valve, the swirl ratio was varied from zero to 2,8 while maintaining constant intake port flow, and hence constant inducted kinetic energy. Combustion data were obtained at a low speed, light load operating point (1500 RPM/60 psi IMEP) with MBT spark timing. The effects of the increase in swirl were a 25% decrease in ignition delay, a 10% decrease in combustion duration, and a significant improvement in combustion stability. Estimates were made on the effect of swirl on turbulence intensity (10% increase) and integral length scale (10% decrease). Both the increase in swirl and the use of a near-central spark plug location improved the lean operability.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crevices on the Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

1994-03-01
940306
To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Initial Flame Kernel Conditions on Flame Development in SI Engine

1991-10-01
912402
The initial flame kernel behavior in a SI engine was measured by a spark-plug-fiber-optics probe. From these measurements, the flame kernel may be characterized by an expansion speed and a convection velocity. These quantities were correlated with the bum rate on a cycle-to-cycle basis in an engine configurated with quiescent, swirl, and tumble in-cylinder motion. The expansion speed correlates well with the 0-2 percent mass burn duration for all the configurations. The flame convection velocity depends on the in-cylinder motion in the expected manner. There was, however, only a weak correlation between the 10-90 percent burn duration and the initial flame kernel behavior.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Injection System Characteristics on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine

1990-02-01
900609
The effects of injection variability, low velocity fuel injection, and injector orifice size on unburned hydrocarbon emissions were studied in a direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) engine. The engine incorporated a combustion process similar to the Texaco Controlled Combustion System (TCCS) and was operated with gasoline. The variability in the amount of fuel injected per cycle was found to have a negligible effect on HC emissions. Changing the amount of fuel injected at low velocity at the end of injection impacted the HC emissions by up to 50%. A positive pressure differential between the injection line and the combustion chamber when the injector needle closed resulted in more fuel injected at low velocity and increased HC emissions. High speed single frame photography was used to observe the end of injection. Injectors with smaller orifices had substantially lower HC emissions than the baseline injector.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Operating Variables and Prechamber Size on Combustion in a Prechamber Stratified-Charge Engine

1978-02-01
780966
This paper describes the results of experimental and computer simulation studies of the combustion process in the prechamber three-valve stratified-charge engine. Prechamber and main-chamber pressure data and matched computer simulation calculations are used to determine the effects of variations in overall air/fuel ratio, engine speed and load, and prechamber volume and orifice diameter on the parameters which define the combustion process (spark advance for optimum torque, ignition delay, combustion duration), on cylinder pressure diagrams (mean main-chamber pressure, mean pressure difference across the orifice, and cycle-by-cycle pressure fluctuations) and on exhaust emissions. General correlations are derived from the data for the shape of the combustion rate profile and the extent of the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

The Performance of Future ICE and Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Fleet Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1011
A study at MIT of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from advanced technology future automobiles has compared fuel cell powered vehicles with equivalent gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles [1][2]. Current data regarding IC engine and fuel cell vehicle performance were extrapolated to 2020 to provide optimistic but plausible forecasts of how these technologies might compare. The energy consumed by the vehicle and its corresponding CO2 emissions, the fuel production and distribution energy and CO2 emissions, and the vehicle manufacturing process requirements were all evaluated and combined to give a well-to-wheels coupled with a cradle-to-grave assessment. The assessment results show that significant opportunities are available for improving the efficiency of mainstream gasoline and diesel engines and transmissions, and reducing vehicle resistances.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Ignition Delay and Combustion Intervals for a Homogeneous Charge, Spark Ignition Engine

1978-02-01
780232
Correlations for the ignition delay and combustion energy release intervals in a homogeneous charge, spark-ignited engine are developed. After incorporation within a simplified engine cycle simulation, predicted values of these two combustion parameters are compared to experimental engine data. The correlations are based on four fundamental quantities-the turbulent integral scale, the turbulent micro-scale, the turbulent intensity, and the laminar flame speed. The major assumptions include: (1) The turbulent integral scale is proportional to the instantaneous chamber height prior to flame initiation. (2) Angular momentum is conserved in the individual turbulent eddies ahead of the flame front (i.e., a “rapid distortion” turbulence model). (3) The turbulent intensity scales with the mean piston speed. Two empirical constants scale the correlations to a given engine.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2414
The Octane Index (OI) relates a fuel's knocking characteristics to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions. However, since the OI varies substantially with the engine operating conditions, it is typically measured at two standard conditions: the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests. These tests are intended to bracket the knock-limited operating range, and the OI is taken to be a weighted average of RON and MON: OI = K MON + (1-K) RON where K is the weighing factor. When the tests were established, K was approximately 0.5. However, recent tests with modern engines have found that K is now negative, indicating that the RON and MON tests no longer bracket the knock-limited operating conditions. Experiments were performed to measure the OI of different fuels in a modern engine to better understand the role of fuel sensitivity (RON-MON) on knock limits.
Journal Article

The Shift in Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines Over the Last 70 Years

2009-11-02
2009-01-2622
Since the advent of the spark ignition engine, the maximum engine efficiency has been knock limited. Knock is a phenomena caused by the rapid autoignition of fuel/air mixture (endgas) ahead of the flame front. The propensity of a fuel to autoignite corresponds to its autoignition chemistry at the local endgas temperature and pressure. Since a fuel blend consists of many components, its autoignition chemistry is very complex. The octane index (OI) simplifies this complex autoignition chemistry by comparing a fuel to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF), a binary blend of iso-octane and n-heptane. As more iso-octane is added into the blend, the PRF is less likely to autoignite. The OI of a fuel is defined as the volumetric percentage of iso-octane in the PRF blend that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Effects of Nonthermal Plasma-Photocatalyst Combined Reactor on Hydrocarbon Decomposition and Reduction during Cold Start and Warm-up in a SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2707
Among the recent research ideas to reduce hydrocarbon emissions emitted from SI engines till light-off of catalyst since cold start are those exploiting non-thermal plasma technique and photo-catalyst that draws recent attention by virtue of its successful application to practical use to clean up the atmosphere using the feature of its relative independence on temperature. Based on the previous research results [6] obtained with model exhaust gases using an experimental emissions reduction system that utilizes the non-thermal plasma and photo-catalyst technique, further investigation was conducted on a production N/A 1.5 liter DOHC gasoline engine during cold start to warm-up. For the effects of non-thermal plasma-photocatalyst combined reactor, 10% concentration reduction was achieved with the fuel component paraffins, and the large increase in non-fuel paraffinic components and acetylene concentrations were similar to those of base condition.
Journal Article

The Trade-off between Automobile Acceleration Performance, Weight, and Fuel Consumption

2008-06-23
2008-01-1524
This paper evaluates how the fuel consumption of the average new U.S. passenger car will be penalized if engine and vehicle improvements continue to be focused on developing bigger, heavier and more powerful automobiles. We quantify a parameter called the Emphasis on Reducing Fuel Consumption (ERFC) and find that there has been little focus on improving fuel consumption in the U.S. over the past twenty years. In contrast, Europe has seen significantly higher ERFC. By raising the ERFC over the next few decades, we can reduce the average U.S. new car's fuel consumption by up to some 40 percent and cut the light-duty vehicle fleet's fuel use by about a quarter. Achieving substantial fuel use reduction will remain a major challenge if automobile size, weight and power continue to dominate.
Journal Article

The Underlying Physics and Chemistry behind Fuel Sensitivity

2010-04-12
2010-01-0617
Recent studies have shown that for a given RON, fuels with a higher sensitivity (RON-MON) tend to have better antiknock performance at most knock-limited conditions in modern engines. The underlying chemistry behind fuel sensitivity was therefore investigated to understand why this trend occurs. Chemical kinetic models were used to study fuels of varying sensitivities; in particular their autoignition delay times and chemical intermediates were compared. As is well known, non-sensitive fuels tend to be paraffins, while the higher sensitivity fuels tend to be olefins, aromatics, diolefins, napthenes, and alcohols. A more exact relationship between sensitivity and the fuel's chemical structure was not found to be apparent. High sensitivity fuels can have vastly different chemical structures. The results showed that the autoignition delay time (τ) behaved differently at different temperatures. At temperatures below 775 K and above 900 K, τ has a strong temperature dependence.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of the Exhaust from a Jet Ignition Prechamber Stratified Charge Engine

1977-02-01
770043
In the jet-ignition prechamber stratified-charge spark-ignition engine, the fuel-air mixture at the time of combustion is non-uniform. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow rates and emission concentrations from this engine were measured and used to determine the degree to which this charge stratification persists in the products of combustion immediately downstream of the exhaust valve throughout the exhaust process. In all the cases studied no appreciable variations, during the exhaust process, were detected either in the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gases as a function of time or in the instantaneous concentrations of CO2, O2 and NOx. The experimentally obtained instantaneous HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust, however, displayed large fluctuations and were used to study the sources of these two pollutants in this engine.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flowrate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine

1972-02-01
720112
Experimental measurements of the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature, mass flowrate, and hydrocarbon concentration have been made in the exhaust of a single cylinder research engine. The temperature measurements were accomplished using an infrared optical technique and observing the radiation of the exhaust gas at the 4.4 μm band of CO2. Instantaneous exhaust gas mass flowrates were monitored by placing a restriction in the exhaust manifold and measuring the instantaneous pressures across the restriction. Time-resolved hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using a fast-acting sampling valve with an open time of 2 ms. From these measurements, the hydrocarbon mass flowrate is calculated as a function of crank angle.
Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1892
A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
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