Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 2-Effective Octane Numbers
Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SI DI) of fuel extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the large in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in direct injection (DI) is therefore especially advantageous due to the high heat of vaporization of ethanol. In addition to the thermal benefit due to charge cooling, ethanol blends also display superior chemical resistance to autoignition, therefore allowing the further extension of knock limits. Unlike the charge cooling benefit which is realized mostly in SI DI engines, the chemical benefit of ethanol blends exists in Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines as well. The aim of this study is to separate and quantify the effect of fuel chemistry and charge cooling on knock. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both PFI and DI, knock limits were measured for both injection types and five gasoline-ethanol blends.