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Journal Article

Influence of EGR Quality and Unmixedness on the High-Load Limits of HCCI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0666
This work explores how the high-load limits of HCCI are affected by fuel autoignition reactivity, EGR quality/composition, and EGR unmixedness for naturally aspirated conditions. This is done for PRF80 and PRF60. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) with a CR = 14 piston installed. By operating at successively higher engine loads, five load-limiting factors were identified for these fuels: 1) Residual-NOx-induced run-away advancement of the combustion phasing, 2) EGR-NOx-induced run-away, 3) EGR-NOx/wall-heating induced run-away 4) EGR-induced oxygen deprivation, and 5) excessive partial-burn occurrence due to EGR unmixedness. The actual load-limiting factor is dependent on the autoignition reactivity of the fuel, the EGR quality level (where high quality refers to the absence of trace species like NO, HC and CO, i.e. simulated EGR), the level of EGR unmixedness, and the selected pressure-rise rate (PRR).
Journal Article

Characterizing the Development of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine Using Planar-Imaging Thermometry

2009-04-20
2009-01-0650
A planar temperature imaging diagnostic has been developed and applied to an investigation of naturally occurring thermal stratification in an HCCI engine. Natural thermal stratification is critical for high-load HCCI operation because it slows the combustion heat release; however, little is known about its development or distribution. A tracer-based single-line PLIF imaging technique was selected for its good precision and simplicity. Temperature-map images were derived from the PLIF images, based on the temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence signal of the toluene tracer added to the fuel. A well premixed intake charge assured that variations in fuel/air mixture did not affect the signal. Measurements were made in a single-cylinder optically accessible HCCI research engine (displacement = 0.98 liters) at a typical 1200 rpm operating condition. Since natural thermal stratification develops prior to autoignition, all measurements were made for motored operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

2008-04-14
2008-01-0047
Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Journal Article

Influence of Fuel Autoignition Reactivity on the High-Load Limits of HCCI Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0054
This work explores the high-load limits of HCCI for naturally aspirated operation. This is done for three fuels with various autoignition reactivity: iso-octane, PRF80, and PRF60. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liter displacement), mostly with a CR = 14 piston installed, but with some tests at CR = 18. Five load-limiting factors were identified: 1) NOx-induced combustion-phasing run-away, 2) wall-heating-induced run-away, 3) EGR-induced oxygen deprivation, 4) wandering unsteady combustion, and 5) excessive exhaust NOx. These experiments at 1200 rpm show that the actual load-limiting factor is dependent on the autoignition reactivity of the fuel, the selected CA50, and in some cases, the tolerable level of NOx emissions. For iso-octane, which has the highest resistance to autoignition of the fuels tested, the NOx emissions become unacceptable at IMEPg = 473 kPa.
Journal Article

Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation and the Sources of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0053
Detailed exhaust speciation measurements were made on an HCCI engine fueled with iso-octane over a range of fueling rates, and over a range of fuel-stratification levels. Fully premixed fueling was used for the fueling sweep. This sweep extended from a fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕ) of 0.28, which is sufficiently high to achieve a combustion efficiency of 96%, down to a below-idle fueling rate of ϕ = 0.08, with a combustion efficiency of only 55%. The stratification sweep was conducted at an idle fueling rate, using an 8-hole GDI injector to vary stratification from well-mixed conditions for an early start of injection (SOI) (40°CA) to highly stratified conditions for an SOI well up the compression stroke (325°CA, 35°bTDC-compression). The engine speed was 1200 rpm. At each operating condition, exhaust samples were collected and analyzed by GC-FID for the C1 and C2 hydrocarbon (HC) species and by GC-MS for all other species except formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
Journal Article

Understanding the Chemical Effects of Increased Boost Pressure under HCCI Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0019
One way to increase the load range in an HCCI engine is to increase boost pressure. In this modeling study, we investigate the effect of increased boost pressure on the fuel chemistry in an HCCI engine. Computed results of HCCI combustion are compared to experimental results in a HCCI engine. We examine the influence of boost pressure using a number of different detailed chemical kinetic models - representing both pure compounds (methylcyclohexane, cyclohexane, iso-octane and n-heptane) and multi-component models (primary reference fuel model and gasoline surrogate fuel model). We examine how the model predictions are altered by increased fueling, as well as reaction rate variation, and the inclusion of residuals in our calculations. In this study, we probe the low temperature chemistry (LTC) region and examine the chemistry responsible for the low-temperature heat release (LTHR) for wide ranges of intake boost pressure.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification for Low-Load HCCI Combustion: Performance & Fuel-PLIF Measurements

2007-10-29
2007-01-4130
Fuel stratification has been investigated as a means of improving the low-load combustion efficiency in an HCCI engine. Several stratification techniques were examined: different GDI injectors, increased swirl, and changes in injection pressure, to determine which parameters are effective for improving the combustion efficiency while maintaining NOx emissions below U.S. 2010 limits. Performance and emission measurements were obtained in an all-metal engine. Corresponding fuel distribution measurements were made with fuel PLIF imaging in a matching optically accessible engine. The fuel used was iso-octane, which is a good surrogate for gasoline. For an idle fueling rate (ϕ = 0.12), combustion efficiency was improved substantially, from 64% to 89% at the NOx limit, using delayed fuel injection with a hollow-cone injector at an injection pressure of 120 bar.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic and Chemical Effects of EGR and Its Constituents on HCCI Autoignition

2007-04-16
2007-01-0207
EGR can be used beneficially to control combustion phasing in HCCI engines. To better understand the function of EGR, this study experimentally investigates the thermodynamic and chemical effects of real EGR, simulated EGR, dry EGR, and individual EGR constituents (N2, CO2, and H2O) on the autoignition processes. This was done for gasoline and various PRF blends. The data show that addition of real EGR retards the autoignition timing for all fuels. However, the amount of retard is dependent on the specific fuel type. This can be explained by identifying and quantifying the various underlying mechanisms, which are: 1) Thermodynamic cooling effect due to increased specific-heat capacity, 2) [O2] reduction effect, 3) Enhancement of autoignition due to the presence of H2O, 4) Enhancement or suppression of autoignition due to the presence of trace species such as unburned or partially-oxidized hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

EGR and Intake Boost for Managing HCCI Low-Temperature Heat Release over Wide Ranges of Engine Speed

2007-01-23
2007-01-0051
Reaching for higher loads and improving combustion-phasing control are important challenges for HCCI research. Although HCCI engines can operate with a variety of fuels, recent research has shown that fuels with two-stage autoignition have some significant advantages for overcoming these challenges. Because the amount of low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is proportional to the local equivalence ratio (ϕ), fuel stratification can be used to adjust the combustion phasing (CA50) and/or burn duration using various fuel-injection strategies. Two-stage ignition fuels also allow stable combustion even for extensive combustion-phasing retard, which reduces the knocking propensity. Finally, the LTHR reduces the required intake temperature, which increases the inducted charge mass for a given intake pressure, allowing higher fueling rates before knocking and NOx emissions become a problem. However, the amount of LTHR is normally highly dependent on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2006-04-03
2006-01-1518
Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to investigate the naturally occurring charge stratification in an HCCI engine. This stratification slows the pressure-rise rate (PRR) during combustion, making it critical to the high-load operating limit of these engines. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Using this engine, chemiluminescence images were obtained from three different view angles. These included both single-shot images with intensified CCD cameras and high-speed (20kHz) sequences with an intensified CMOS video camera. The engine was fueled with iso-octane, which has been shown to be a reasonable surrogate for gasoline and exhibits only single-stage ignition at these naturally aspirated conditions. The chemiluminescence images show that the HCCI combustion is not homogeneous but has a strong turbulent structure even when the fuel and air are fully premixed prior to intake.
Technical Paper

Smoothing HCCI Heat-Release Rates Using Partial Fuel Stratification with Two-Stage Ignition Fuels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0629
This work explores the potential of partial fuel stratification to smooth HCCI heat-release rates at high load. A combination of engine experiments and multi-zone chemical-kinetics modeling was used for this. The term “partial” is introduced to emphasize that care is taken to supply fuel to all parts of the in-cylinder charge, which is essential for reaching high power output. It was found that partial fuel stratification offers good potential to achieve a staged combustion event with reduced pressure-rise rates. Therefore, partial fuel stratification has the potential to increase the high-load limits for HCCI/SCCI operation. However, for the technique to be effective the crank-angle phasing of the “hot” ignition has to be sensitive to the local ϕ. Sufficient sensitivity was observed only for fuel blends that exhibit low-temperature heat release (like diesel fuel).
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3741
Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1328 species and 5835 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Speed, Fueling Rate, and Combustion Phasing on the Thermal Stratification Required to Limit HCCI Knocking Intensity

2005-05-11
2005-01-2125
Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce pressure-rise rates and allow increased power output for HCCI engines. This paper systematically examines how the amount of thermal stratification of the core of the charge has to be adjusted to avoid excessive knock as the engine speed and fueling rate are increased. This is accomplished by a combination of multi-zone chemical-kinetics modeling and engine experiments, using iso-octane as the fuel. The experiments show that, for a low-residual engine configuration, the pressure traces are self-similar during changes to the engine speed when CA50 is maintained by adjusting the intake temperature. Consequently, the absolute pressure-rise rate measured as bar/ms increases proportionally with the engine speed. As a result, the knocking (ringing) intensity increases drastically with engine speed, unless counteracted by some means.
Technical Paper

Potential of Thermal Stratification and Combustion Retard for Reducing Pressure-Rise Rates in HCCI Engines, Based on Multi-Zone Modeling and Experiments

2005-04-11
2005-01-0113
This work investigates the potential of in-cylinder thermal stratification for reducing the pressure-rise rate in HCCI engines, and the coupling between thermal stratification and combustion-phasing retard. A combination of computational and experimental results is employed. The computations were conducted using both a custom multi-zone version and the standard single-zone version of the Senkin application of the CHEMKIN III kinetics-rate code, and kinetic mechanisms for iso-octane. This study shows that the potential for extending the high-load operating limit by adjusting the thermal stratification is very large. With appropriate stratification, even a stoichiometric charge can be combusted with low pressure-rise rates, giving an output of 16 bar IMEPg for naturally aspirated operation. For more typical HCCI fueling rates (ϕ = 0.38 - 0.45), the optimal charge-temperature distribution is found to depend on both the amount of fuel and the combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Comparing Enhanced Natural Thermal Stratification Against Retarded Combustion Phasing for Smoothing of HCCI Heat-Release Rates

2004-10-25
2004-01-2994
Two methods for mitigating unacceptably high HCCI heat-release rates are investigated and compared in this combined experimental/CFD work. Retarding the combustion phasing by decreasing the intake temperature is found to have good potential for smoothing heat-release rates and reducing engine knock. There are at least three reasons for this: 1) lower combustion temperatures, 2) less pressure rise when the combustion is occurring during the expansion stroke, and 3) the natural thermal stratification increases around TDC. However, overly retarded combustion leads to unstable operation with partial-burn cycles resulting in high IMEPg variations and increased emissions. Enhanced natural thermal stratification by increased heat-transfer rates was explored by lowering the coolant temperature from 100 to 50°C. This strategy substantially decreased the heat-release rates and lowered the knocking intensity under certain conditions.
Technical Paper

Spatial Analysis of Emissions Sources for HCCI Combustion at Low Loads Using a Multi-Zone Model

2004-06-08
2004-01-1910
We have conducted a detailed numerical analysis of HCCI engine operation at low loads to investigate the sources of HC and CO emissions and the associated combustion inefficiencies. Engine performance and emissions are evaluated as fueling is reduced from typical HCCI conditions, with an equivalence ratio ϕ = 0.26 to very low loads (ϕ = 0.04). Calculations are conducted using a segregated multi-zone methodology and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for iso-octane with 859 chemical species. The computational results agree very well with recent experimental results. Pressure traces, heat release rates, burn duration, combustion efficiency and emissions of hydrocarbon, oxygenated hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide are generally well predicted for the whole range of equivalence ratios. The computational model also shows where the pollutants originate within the combustion chamber, thereby explaining the changes in the HC and CO emissions as a function of equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Relationship Between Measured Intake Temperature, BDC Temperature, and Combustion Phasing for Premixed and DI HCCI Engines

2004-06-08
2004-01-1900
Combustion phasing is one important issue that must be addressed for HCCI operation. The intake temperature can be adjusted to achieve ignition at the desired crank angle. However, heat-transfer during induction will make the effective intake temperature different from the temperature measured in the runner. Also, depending on the engine speed and port configuration, dynamic flow effects cause various degrees of charge heating. Additionally, residuals from the previous cycle can have significant influence on the charge temperature at the beginning of the compression stroke. Finally, direct injection of fuel will influence the charge temperature since heat is needed for vaporization. This study investigates these effects in a systematic manner with a combination of experiment and cycle simulation using WAVE from Ricardo.
Technical Paper

Isolating the Effects of Fuel Chemistry on Combustion Phasing in an HCCI Engine and the Potential of Fuel Stratification for Ignition Control

2004-03-08
2004-01-0557
An investigation has been conducted to determine the relative magnitude of the various factors that cause changes in combustion phasing (or required intake temperature) with changes in fueling rate in HCCI engines. These factors include: fuel autoignition chemistry and thermodynamic properties (referred to as fuel chemistry), combustion duration, wall temperatures, residuals, and heat/cooling during induction. Based on the insight gained from these results, the potential of fuel stratification to control combustion phasing was also investigated. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine at 1200 rpm using a GDI-type fuel injector. Engine operation was altered in a series of steps to suppress each of the factors affecting combustion phasing with changes in fueling rate, leaving only the effect of fuel chemistry.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Fuel-Type and Engine Speed on Intake Temperature Requirements and Completeness of Bulk-Gas Reactions for HCCI Combustion

2003-10-27
2003-01-3173
To gain a better understanding of how the onset of incomplete bulk-gas reactions changes with engine speed and fuel-type, a parametric study of HCCI combustion and emissions has been conducted. The experimental part of the study was performed at naturally aspirated conditions and included fueling sweeps at four engine speeds (600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 rpm) for research grade gasoline, pure iso-octane and two mixtures of the primary reference fuels (i.e. n-heptane and iso-octane) with octane numbers of 80 and 60. Additionally, single-zone CHEMKIN computations with a detailed mechanism for iso-octane were conducted. The results show that there is a strong coupling between the ignition quality of the fuel and the required intake temperature to phase the combustion at TDC. There is also a direct influence of intake temperature on the completeness of combustion. This is the case because the CO-to-CO2 reactions are highly sensitive to the peak combustion temperatures.
Book

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

2003-03-03
The homogeneous charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion process has the potential to significantly reduce NOx and particulate emissions, while achieving high thermal efficiency and the capability of operating with a wide variety of fuels. This makes the HCCI engine an attractive technology that can ostensibly provide diesel-like fuel efficiency and very low emissions, which may allow emissions compliance to occur without relying on lean aftertreatment systems.
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