A Parametric Study of HCCI Combustion - the Sources of Emissions at Low Loads and the Effects of GDI Fuel Injection
A combined experimental and modeling study has been conducted to investigate the sources of CO and HC emissions (and the associated combustion inefficiencies) at low-loads. Engine performance and emissions were evaluated as fueling was reduced from knocking conditions to very low loads (ϕ = 0.28 - 0.04) for a variety of operating conditions, including: various intake temperatures, engine speeds, compression ratios, and a comparison of fully premixed and GDI (gasoline-type direct injection) fueling. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder engine (0.98 liters) using iso-octane as the fuel. Comparative computations were made using a single-zone model with the full chemistry mechanisms for iso-octane, to determine the expected behavior of the bulk-gases for the limiting case of no heat transfer, crevices, or charge inhomogeneities.