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Technical Paper

An Investigation, Via Simulation, of Vehicle Characteristics that Contribute to Steering Maneuver Induced Rollover

1992-02-01
920585
The goal of this research was to find vehicle characteristics which may contribute to steering maneuver induced rollover accidents. This work involved studying vehicle handling dynamics using the Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear (VDANL) computer simulation. The simulation was used to predict vehicle responses while performing 28 different steering induced maneuvers for each of 51 vehicles. Various measures of vehicle response (metrics), such as response times, percent overshoots, etc., were computed for each vehicle from simulation predictions. These vehicle directional response metrics were analyzed in an attempt to identify vehicle characteristics that might be good predictor/explanatory variables for vehicle rollover propensity. The metrics were correlated, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software and logistic regression, with single vehicle accident data from the state of Michigan for the years 1986 through 1988.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of J-Turn and Fishhook Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1008
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed in 2001, starting in the spring and continuing through the fall. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 1” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from one Characterization maneuver (the Slowly Increasing Steer maneuver) and four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are discussed (the NHTSA J-Turn, Fishhook 1a, Fishhook 1b, and Nissan Fishhook). Details regarding NHTSA's assessment of the Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are available in “Volume 2” [2].
Technical Paper

An Experimental Examination of Double Lane Change Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped, Light Vehicle Rollover

2003-03-03
2003-01-1009
Phase IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) rollover research program was performed during the spring through fall of 2001. The objective of this phase was to obtain the data needed to select a limited set of maneuvers capable of assessing light vehicle rollover resistance. Five Characterization maneuvers and eight Rollover Resistance maneuvers were evaluated [1]. This paper is “Volume 2” of a two-paper account of the research used to develop dynamic maneuver tests for rollover resistance ratings. Test procedures and results from four Rollover Resistance maneuvers are presented. The Consumers Union Short Course (CUSC), ISO 3888 Part 2, Ford Path Corrected Limit Lane Change (PCL LC), and Open-Loop Pseudo Double Lane Changes are discussed. Details regarding the NHTSA J-Turn, and the three fishhook maneuvers are available in “Volume 1” [2].
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Electronic Pedestrian Detection Systems for School Buses

1996-12-01
960518
Most fatalities due to school bus accidents involve pedestrians being struck by the bus. All too frequently the school bus strikes a disembarking passenger because the driver was unaware of their presence near the bus. To try to prevent this type of accident, two Doppler microwave radar-based pedestrian detection systems have been developed and are commercially available. These systems supplement regular school bus mirrors. They operate only while the bus is stationary. Both systems detect moving pedestrians either directly in front of or to the right of the bus. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has performed a three-part evaluation of these pedestrian detection systems. The first part measured the field of view of each system's sensors. The second part evaluated the effectiveness and appropriateness of each system's driver interface. The third part was a small-scale operational evaluation.
Technical Paper

An Ergonomic Evaluation of School Bus Cross View Mirror Systems

1992-02-01
920401
This research studied the problems and effectiveness of existing cross view school bus mirror systems. Interviews were conducted with 49 school bus drivers to ascertain their evaluations of the use and perceived effectiveness of various cross view mirror systems. Six commercially available cross view mirrors were randomly selected for testing. These mirrors were used to make the seven cross view mirror systems (each with 2 to 4 cross view mirrors) which were evaluated. The optical properties of each cross view mirror and the field of view (FOV) of each mirror system were measured in a laboratory environment. Mirror system FOVs were determined with the mirrors mounted on each of three different types of school buses. The directly observable FOV of each bus was also determined. Driver child detection field studies were conducted using eight bus drivers and six mirror systems with simulated children.
Technical Paper

A Reliability Theory Approach to Estimate the Potential Effectiveness of a Crash Avoidance System to Support Lane Change Decisions

1997-02-24
970454
This paper presents the methodology and initial results of an effectiveness estimation effort applied to lane change crash avoidance systems. The lane change maneuver was considered to be composed of a decision phase and an execution phase. The decision phase begins when the driver desires to perform a lane change. It continues until the driver turns the handwheel to move the vehicle laterally into the new lane or until the driver decides to postpone the lane change. During the decision phase, the driver gathers information about the road scene ahead and either present or upcoming traffic or obstacles in the destination lane. The execution phase begins when the driver starts the move into the new lane and continues until the vehicle has been laterally stabilized in the destination lane. If the driver aborts the lane change once started, the maneuver execution phase concludes when the vehicle has been laterally stabilized in the original lane.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Validating Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

1990-02-01
900128
This paper presents a methodology for validating vehicle stability and control computer simulations. Validation is defined as showing that, within some specified operating range of the vehicle, a simulation's predictions of a vehicle's responses agree with the actual measured vehicle's responses to within some specified level of accuracy. The method uses repeated experimental runs at each test condition to generate sufficient data for statistical analyses. The acquisition and reduction of experimental data, and the processing path for simulation data, are described. The usefulness of time domain validation for steady state and slowly varying transients is discussed. The importance of frequency domain validation for thoroughly validating a simulation is shown. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the comparison of the simulation predictions with the actual test measurements are developed.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Light Vehicle Antilock Brake System Test Track Performance Evaluation

1999-03-01
1999-01-1287
To determine if situations and/or conditions exist in which ABS-equipped vehicles do not perform as well as those without ABS, the braking performance of nine passenger vehicles was observed over a comprehensive array of driving conditions. For most maneuvers, on most surfaces, ABS-assisted stops yielded distances shorter than those made with the ABS disabled. The one exception was on loose gravel where stopping distances increased by an average of 27.2 percent overall. Additionally, the vehicular stability observed during testing was almost always superior with ABS. For the cases in which instability was observed, ABS was not deemed responsible for its occurrence.
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