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Technical Paper

Analysis of Factors Influencing Particulate Matter Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3492
The relative amounts of heat released by premixed and by diffusion controlled combustion is varied in a compression-ignition engine run on the test bench through variation of four operating parameters. Exhaust gas is led to a differential mobility particle sizer and to filters that are loaded for gravimetric analysis. Particle size distributions are acquired in the 16÷630 nm range of electrical mobility diameters. Opacity readings of the exhaust gas are taken, cylinder pressure is indicated, a value for the combustion noise is computed; gaseous emissions are recorded and heat release rates based on cylinder pressure analysis are evaluated. Two full factorial experiments at 2 bar bmep 2000 rpm are run as 24 combinations of four factors: Injection pressure 400 and 1200 bar, with and without pilot injection, 1/3 and 1/4 mass-fraction exhaust gas recirculation, late, middle and early start of injection.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-1270
In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts are available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost optimized solutions. The presented concept for a SI-engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold start and warm up emissions and optimized part load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

A Zero Dimensional Turbulence and Heat Transfer Phenomenological Model for Pre-Chamber Gas Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1453
Most of the phenomena that occur during the high pressure cycle of a spark ignition engine are highly influenced by the gas temperature, turbulence intensity and turbulence length scale inside the cylinder. For a pre chamber gas engine, the small volume and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the pre chamber increases the relative significance of the gas-to-wall heat losses, the early flame kernel development and the wall induced quenching; all of these phenomena are associated up to a certain extent with the turbulence and temperature field inside the pre chamber. While three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations can capture complex phenomena inside the pre chamber with high accuracy, they have high computational cost. Quasi dimensional models, on the contrary, provide a computationally inexpensive alternative for simulating multiple operating conditions as well as different geometries.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Estimating the Influence of Hydrogen-Rich Gas Addition on Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Front Propagation in IC-SI Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0232
Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in internal combustion engines is gaining increasing interest, as it seems suitable to reach near-zero emission combustion, able to easily meet future stringent regulations. Bottled gas was used to simulate the output of an on-board reformer (21%H2, 24%CO, 55%N2). Measurements were carried out on a 4-stroke, 2-cylinder, 0.5-liter engine, with EGR, in order to calculate the heat release rate through a detailed two-zone model. A quasi-dimensional model of the flame was developed: it consists of a geometrical estimate of the flame surface, which is then coupled with the heat release rate. The turbulent flame speed can then be inferred. The model was then applied to blends of gasoline with hydrogen-rich gas, showing the effect on the flame speed and transition from laminar to turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Combustion Model for Heat Release Rate Prediction in High-Speed DI Diesel Engines with Common Rail Injection

2000-10-16
2000-01-2933
This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of Unsteady Heat Flux Through an I.C. Engine Wall Including Soot Layer Dynamics

1997-02-24
970063
This paper deals with the influence of a wall soot layer of varying thickness on the unsteady heat transfer between the fluid and the engine cylinder wall during a full cycle of a four-stroke Diesel engine operation. For that purpose a computational investigation has been carried out, using a one-dimensional model of a multi-layer solid wall for simulating the transient response within the confinement of the combustion chamber. The soot layer is thereby of varying thickness over time, depending on the relative rates of deposition and oxidation. Deposition is accounted for due to a thermophoretic mechanism, while oxidation is described by means of an Arrhenius type expression. Results of the computations obtained so far show that the substrate wall temperature has a significant effect on the soot layer dynamics and thus on the wall heat flux to the combustion chamber wall.
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