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Technical Paper

A Requirements Based Approach to Future Aeronautical Navigation Systems Based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems

2011-10-04
2011-36-0216
The increasing use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems-GNSS in future Aeronautical Navigation Systems-ANS is a current trend in the aeronautical operation and regulation communities. This trend implies the adoption of elements and interactions of a degree of complexity that is still being discussed around the world. Faced with that, we believe that a requirements based approach is an effective tool to deal with such highly complex and integrated systems. In this work we discuss a requirements based approach to future Aeronautical Navigation Systems based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems. To do that, we first briefly present the concept of Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management - CNS/ATM, and the current and potential benefits of the adoption of its paradigms.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on the Use of Model Based Reliability for Improving the Results of the Reliability Analysis and FMEA/FMECA of a Satellite Program

2011-10-04
2011-36-0403
Systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles and air traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and highly integrated, as prescribed by the SAE ARP 4754 Standard. They integrate many technologies and they work in very demanding environments, sometimes with little or no maintenance, due to the severe conditions of operation. To survive such harsh operating conditions, they require very high levels of reliability, to be reached by a diversity of approaches, processes, components, etc. By their turn, the processes of analysis and decision making shall be improved progressively, as experience accumulates and suggests modifications. Most of this can be translated in models. According to this philosophy, in this work, we discuss the use of Model Based Reliability for improving the results of the Reliability Analysis and FMEA/FMECA of a satellite program, as those conducted at the National Institute for Space Research-INPE, since 1979.
Technical Paper

A Worst Case Formula for a Communication and Computation Delay in NCS.

2010-10-06
2010-36-0358
A major trend in modern aerospace and automotive systems is to integrate computing, communication and control into different levels of the vehicle and/or its supervision. A well-fitted architecture adopted by this trend is the common bus network architecture. A Networked Control System (NCS) is called when the control loop is closed through a communication network. The presence of this communication network introduces new characteristics that must be considered at the design time of a control system. This work, still in development, focuses on a worst case formula for a communication (TDMA) plus computation (RMS) on a NCS. This formula, in a first instance, agrees with the simulated cases under the hypotheses and conditions when the NCS is composed by 1 actuator - 1 sensor and when is composed by 2 actuators - 2 sensors. In the future, we intend to generalize this formula and extend this study to NCS that uses other communication protocols or others computer schedulers.
Technical Paper

The Application of a Requirements Traceability Automation Tool to the Documentation of a Satellite Project

2010-10-06
2010-36-0345
This paper presents the preliminary results of an "a posteriori" exercise of application of a Requirements Traceability Automation Tool (RT tool) to a set of documents. The documents have been prepared according to established Space System Engineering methodologies and with attention to text quality, but without attention to requirements traceability because the processes and methodologies used during their preparation predates the emergence of the processes and methodologies developed by Requirements Engineering (RE). This study is intended to determine some of the benefits of using a RT tool when compared with the previously used processes and methodologies. The set of documents under scrutiny have been prepared in the frame of the development of the CBERS-3 satellite (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and is composed of system, subsystem and equipment specification and covering documents related to the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) of the satellite.
Technical Paper

Analysis, Design and Simulation of the Reconfigurable Control Architecture for the Contingency mode of the Multimission Platform

2010-10-06
2010-36-0333
This work presents the analysis, design and simulation of the reconfigurable control architecture for the contingency mode of the MultiMission Platform (MMP). The MMP is a generic service module currently under design at INPE. Its control system can be switched among nine main Modes of Operation and other Sub-Modes, according to ground command or information coming from the control system, mainly alarms. The implementation followed the specifications when they were found, otherwise it was designed. They cover operations from detumbling after launcher separation and solar acquisition, to achieving payload nominal attitude and orbital corrections maneuvers. The manager block of the control system was implemented as a finite state machine. The tests are based in simulations with the MatriX/SystemBuild software. They focused mainly on the worst cases that the satellite is supposed to endure in its mission, be it during modes or transitions between modes and submodes.
Technical Paper

Study on a Fault-Tolerant System Applied to an Aerospace Control System

2010-10-06
2010-36-0330
On several engineering applications high Reliability is one of the most wanted features. The aspects of Reliability play a key role in design projects of aircraft, spacecraft, automotive, medical, bank systems, and so, avoiding loss of life, property, or costly recalls. The highly reliable systems are designed to work continuously, even upon external threats and internal Failures. Very convenient is the fact that the term 'Failure' may have its meaning tailored to the context of interesting, as its general definition refers to it as "any deviation from the specified behavior of a system". The above-mentioned 'deviation' may refer to: performance degradation, operational misbehavior, deviation of environmental qualification levels, Safety hazards, etc. Nevertheless, Reliability is not the only requirement for a modern system. Other features as Availability, Integrity, Security and Safety are always part of the same technical specification, in a same level of importance.
Technical Paper

A Proposal for Improving the Results of the Reliability Analysis and FMEA/FMECA of the CBERS Satellite Program

2010-10-06
2010-36-0324
Complex systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles and air traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE ARP 4754 Standard. They integrate many technologies and they work in very demanding environments sometimes with little or no maintenance due to the severe conditions of operation. To survive such harsh operating conditions, they require very high levels of reliability, to be reached by a diversity of approaches, processes, components, etc. By their turn, the processes of analysis and decision making shall be improved progressively, as experience accumulates and suggests modifications and adaptations. According to this philosophy, in this work, we discuss a proposal for improving the results of the Reliability Analysis and FMEA/FMECA of the CBERS Satellite Program, conducted at the National Institute for Space Research-INPE, since 1987.
Technical Paper

Distributed Simulation of the Longitudinal Mode of an Aircraft by Using the DoD High Level Architecture (HLA)

2008-10-07
2008-36-0299
This work presents the distributed simulation of the longitudinal mode of an aircraft by using the DoD High Level Architecture (HLA). The HLA is a general-purpose architecture for simulation reuse and interoperability. This architecture was developed under the leadership of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) to support reuse and interoperability across the large numbers of different types of simulations developed and maintained by the DoD. To do this, the transfer function of the longitudinal mode of a hypothetical aircraft was implemented by means of a SystemBuild/MATRIXx model. The output of this model was connected to a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) and monitored on a remote computer. The connection between the model and the RTI was implemented by using a wrapper which was developed in C++. The HLA RTI implementation used in this work was the poRTIco.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) on a Knock Sensor

2008-10-07
2008-36-0369
The purpose of this work is Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) on a Knock Sensor because some of the modern petrol engines operate on the efficient four-stroke cycle, where each cylinder of the engine contains an intake and exhaust poppet valve that is operated at the appropriate time. The ECM (Engine Control Module) uses the Knock Sensor signal to control timing. The Knock Sensor detects engine knock and sends voltage signal to the ECM. These signals can be sufficient to detect abnormal combustion, like ‘spark knock’ and ‘surface ignition’. Engine knock occurs within a specified range. The Knock Sensor, located in the engine block, cylinder head, or intake manifold is tuned to detect that frequency, which motivates the use of signal models for detection. But this sensor is a wide-band accelerometer of the piezoelectric type too. Analogy with a general seismic mass system is possible since it is a general damped second order vibrating system which is forced into oscillatory motion.
Technical Paper

Propagation of Uncertainties in the Navigation of Aerospace Vehicles to Minimize the Collision Risk

2008-10-07
2008-36-0407
One challenge that the space, aeronautical and automotive industries are facing today is the fast growing number of vehicles versus the slowly growing number of useful orbits, routes, and speedways. Furthermore, the adoption of “free-flight”, “speed-drive”, etc. policies in the near future will only aggravate it. All these factors increase the risk of collisions and the frequency of deviation maneuvers to avoid them. But they also create the opportunity to devise policies to mitigate such problems, including algorithms to propagate the uncertainties in vehicle motions and to predict the risk of their collisions. This work discusses the development and simulation of an algorithm for the propagation of navigation uncertainties in the trajectory of aerospace vehicles, to minimize the risk of collisions. The scenario of Satellites Formation Flying shall be used for the simulations, with focus on the prediction of the collision probability.
Technical Paper

Analysis, Design and Simulation of the Transition from Pre-Nominal to Nominal Mode of the Reconfigurable Control Architecture for the Multi-Mission Platform

2008-10-07
2008-36-0343
This work presents the first part of the analysis, design and simulation of the reconfigurable control architecture for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), a generic service module currently under design at INPE. Its control system can be switched among nine main Modes of Operation. The implementation followed the specifications when they were found, otherwise it was designed. The manager block of the control system was implemented as a finite state machine. The tests were based in simulations with the MatriX/SystemBuild software. They focused mainly on the worst cases that the satellite is supposed to endure in its mission.
Technical Paper

Influences of Data Bus Protocols on an Aircraft Fly-By-Wire Networked Control System

2008-10-07
2008-36-0008
A major trend in modern aerospace and automotive systems is to integrate computing, communication and control into different levels of the vehicle and/or its supervision. A well fitted architecture adopted by this trend is the Common Bus Network Architecture. A Networked Control System (NCS) is called when the control loop is closed through a communication network. The presence of this communication network introduces new characteristics (sharing bus, delays, jitter etc.) to be considered at design time of a control system. This work focuses on the influences of data bus protocols on an aircraft Fly-By-Wire (FBW) networked control system. We intent to show, through simulations, the influences of sharing bus on a real time control system. To compare effects, we choose the CAN Bus protocol where the medium access control is event driven; and the TTP protocol where the medium access control is time driven.
Technical Paper

Generation and Customization of Real Time Code for Embedded Controllers Using a Modeling and Simulation Environment

2007-11-28
2007-01-2924
This works presents the generation and customization of real time code for embedded controllers using a modeling and simulation environment. When the controller model is considered satisfactory, the developers can use a code generation tool to build a real time source code capable to be migrated to an embedded target processor. The code generation tool used is capable to generate real time code in ANSI C or ADA 95 languages. This process can be customized to adequate to a target processor and/or a Real Time Operating System (RTOS). The code customization can be achieved using a specific Template Programming Language (TPL) that specifies how the code will be generated. This technique makes it possible the instantiation of real time embedded controllers code using the same controller model to a wide variety of target processors and/or RTOSs.
Technical Paper

Identification of the Longitudinal Mode of an Aircraft by Using Time and Frequency Response Methods

2007-11-28
2007-01-2844
This work presents the identification of the longitudinal mode of an aircraft by using time and frequency response methods. To do this, the transfer function was identified based on the sampled response to a step input. The transfer function was validated comparing the model step response with the original system step response. The identification of the system transfer function was performed by using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Bode Graphs methods. The model validation quantification was performed by means of the mean quadratic-error method applied to the step response difference. Based on that, the identified model was considered to be quite representative, thus proving the suitability of the applied methods.
Technical Paper

Influence of Sharing Bus on Real-Time Networked Control Systems Performance

2007-11-28
2007-01-2692
A major trend in modern aerospace and automotive systems is to integrate computing, communication and control into different levels of the vehicle and/or its supervision. A well fitted architecture adopted by this trend is the common bus network architecture. A Networked Control System (NCS) is called when the control loop is closed through a communication network. The presence of this communication network introduces new characteristics (sharing bus, delays, jitter,etc) to be considered at design time of a control system. This work focuses on the effect of sharing bus between the control system and the other devices connected to the bus foreigner to control. These last devices are called interferences. We intented to show, through simulations, the influence of sharing bus on real time control systems performance. To compare effects, we choose the CanBus protocol where the medium access control is event driven; and the TTP protocol where the medium access control is time driven.
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