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Technical Paper

Direct Coupled 1D/3D-CFD-Computation (GT-Power/Star-CD) of the Flow in the Switch-Over Intake System of an 8-Cylinder SI Engine with External Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0901
The setting of boundary conditions on the boundaries of a 3D-CFD grid under certain conditions is a source of significant errors. The latter might occur by numerical reflection of pressure waves on the boundary or by incorrect setting of the chemical composition of the gas mixture in recirculation zones (e.g. in the intake manifold of internal combustion engines when the burnt gas from the cylinder enters the intake manifold and passes the boundary of the CDF-grid. When the flow direction is changed the setting of pure new charge on the boundary leads to errors). This type of problems should receive attention in operation points with low engine speed and load. The direct coupling of a 3D-CFD program (Star-CD) with a 1D-CFD program (GT-Power) is done by integration of the 3D-grid of the engine component as a „CFD-component” of the 1D computational model of a complete engine.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Powertrains using Different Combustion Engine Models

2015-09-06
2015-24-2545
This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose a detailed 1D-CFD model within an HEV drivetrain is compared to a ‘traditional’ map-based combustion engine model as well as different types of simplified engine models which are able to reduce computing time significantly while keeping the model accuracy at a high level. First, a simplified air path model (fast running model) is coupled with a quasi dimensional, predictive combustion model. In a further step of reducing the computation time, an alternative way of modeling the in cylinder processes was evaluated, by replacing the combustion model with a mean value model. For this approach, the most important influencing factors of the 1D-CFD air path model (temperature, pressure, A/F-ratio) are used as input values into neural nets, while the corresponding outputs are in turn used as feedback for the air path model.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Investigations of High-Performance SI-Engines by Means of 3D-CFD Simulations

2015-09-06
2015-24-2469
Comparative analyses of a high-performance 4-cylinder DISI-engine and its equivalent single-cylinder research engine were performed by means of fast response 3D-CFD simulations. Both engines have identical geometries of intake and exhaust channels, cylinder head and piston. The used 3D-CFD tool QuickSim was developed at the Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS), particularly for the numerical simulation of internal combustion engines (ICE). A calibration of the air consumption enabled a comparison of in-cylinder processes, including charge motion, mixture formation and combustion. All calculated operating points showed a similar trend. Deviations during the gas exchange phase led to a higher turbulence level and hence combustion velocity for the single-cylinder research engine. This resulted in a slightly higher maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Engine-Related Restrictions for the Global Efficiency by Using a Rankine Cycle-Based Waste Heat Recovery System on Heavy Duty Truck by Means of 1D-Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1451
As a promising concept to improve fuel efficiency of a long-haul heavy duty truck with diesel engine, organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system (WHR) by utilizing the exhaust gas from internal combustion engine has continuously drawn attention from industry in recent years. The greatest achievable global efficiency may be, however, restricted by the engine. On one hand, engine operating conditions have direct impact on the temperature and the mass flow of exhaust gas, which is the waste heat source, on the other hand, the engine cooling system limits the heat rejection from the condenser of the WHR system. This paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the varied engine applications considering the effects of the WHR system on the global efficiency and engine emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Water Injection Strategies on DISI Engine Particle Emissions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0101
Increasing the efficiency of modern gasoline engines (with direct injection and spark-ignition - DISI) requires innovative approaches. The reduction of the engine displacement, accompanied by an increase of the mean pressure, is limited by the tendency of increasing combustion anomalies. Conventional methods for knock mitigation, on the contrary, have a negative effect on consumption and efficiency. A promising technology to solve these conflicting objectives is the injection of water. Both the indirect and the direct water injection achieve a significant reduction in the load temperature. The fuel enrichment can be reduced, whereby the operating range of the exhaust aftertreatment can be extended. In addition, water injection paves the way for an increase in the geometric compression ratio, which leads to an efficiency advantage even at partial load.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Flame-Wall-Impingement and Near-Wall Combustion on the Piston Temperature of a Diesel Engine Using Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements

2018-09-10
2018-01-1782
The heat transfer process in a reciprocating engine is dominated by forced convection, which is drastically affected by mean flow, turbulence, flame propagation and its impingement on the combustion chamber walls. All these effects contribute to a transient heat flux, resulting in a fast-changing temporal and spatial temperature distribution at the surface of the combustion chamber walls. To quantify these changes in combustion chamber surface temperature, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single cylinder diesel engine were taken. Therefore, thirteen fast-response thermocouples were installed in the piston surface. A wireless microwave telemetry system was used for data transmission out of the moving piston. A wide range of parameter studies were performed to determine the varying influences on the surface temperature of the piston.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Global Reaction Model for a Range of Gasolines and Kerosenes under HCCI Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0024
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

2019-09-09
2019-24-0177
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and thus emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower part loads for most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures are far below the maximum temperature allowed and dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimizing the combustion engine’s thermal management of the oil circuit. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings could be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig, it was shown that no excessive wear of the bearings is to be expected in case of load increase and simultaneous supply of cooler oil.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Analysis with a Fast Response 3D-CFD Tool

2017-09-04
2017-24-0103
Main limiting factor in the application of 3D-CFD simulations within an engine development is the very high time demand, which is predominantly influenced by the number of cells within the computational mesh. Arbitrary cell coarsening, however, results in a distinct distortion of the simulation outcome. It is rather necessary to adapt the calculation models to the new mesh structure in order to ensure reliability and predictability of the 3D-CFD engine simulation. In the last decade, a fast response 3D-CFD tool was developed at FKFS in Stuttgart. It aims for a harmonized interaction between computational mesh, implemented calculation models and defined boundary conditions in order to enable fast running simulations for engine development tasks. Their susceptibility to errors is significantly minimized by various measures, e.g. extension of the simulation domain (full engine) and multi-cycle simulations.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Pressure Trace Analysis for Gasoline Engines with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2010-10-25
2010-01-2182
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Ideal homogeneous combustion versus partly homogeneous combustion for PC diesel engines

2007-09-16
2007-24-0016
Because of its outstanding efficiency, the direct-injection diesel engine is the preferred drive source in many fields. However, its emission behavior, especially with regard to particulate and nitrogen-oxide emissions, is problematic. A promising approach to reducing emissions inside the engine is presented by various (partially) homogeneous diesel combustion processes, which use suitable mixture formation and combustion management to prevent the formation of nitrogen-oxide and soot. In this paper, starting out from an ideally homogeneous combustion process with manifold injection, two further partially homogeneous combustion processes with internal mixture formation are examined. With regard to the maximum obtainable indicated mean effective pressure and the combustion noise, the ideally homogeneous combustion process proved - in the examined configuration - not to be desirable.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Journal Article

In-Situ Measurements of the Piston and Connecting Rod Dynamics Correlated with TEHL-Simulation Techniques

2017-09-04
2017-24-0157
High combustion pressure in combination with high pressure gradient, as they e.g. can be evoked by high efficient combustion systems and e.g. by alternative fuels, acts as broadband excitation force which stimulates natural vibrations of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft during engine operation. Starting from the combustion chamber the assembly of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft and the main bearings represent the system of internal vibration transfer. To generate exact input and validation values for simulation models of structural dynamic and elasto-hydrodynamic coupled multi-body systems, experimental investigations are done. These are carried out on a 1.5-l inline four cylinder Euro 6 Diesel engine. The modal behaviour of the system was examined in detail in simulation and test as a basis for the investigations. In an anechoic test bench airborne and structure-borne noises and combustion pressure are measured to identify the engine´s vibrational behaviour.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

2018-09-10
2018-01-1655
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0039
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Mixture Formation and Combustion Process in a CNG-Engine by Using a Fast Response 3D-CFD-Simulation

2004-10-25
2004-01-3004
The research institute FKFS in cooperation with the IVK Universität Stuttgart has recently presented QuickSim, a 3D-CFD-tool, that works integrated into the commercial 3D-CFD-code Star-CD. QuickSim has been developed to cover a vacancy in the market of simulation programs for engine development. The code introduces a new concept in the 3D-CFD-simulation of internal combustion engines (SI-Manifold-Injection and SI-GDI), that drastically reduces the CPU-time in comparison to a conventional 3D-CFD-simulation. QuickSim, as a 3D-CFD-tool, combines the advantages of local resolution of the fluid-dynamical field of internal combustion engines exactly like that provided by traditional 3D-CFD-simulations and the versatility and clearness of the real working-process analysis (WP) and of the full 1D-flow calculations. The CPU-time always remains in an acceptable range (few hours over a full operating cycle for a single-processor computing simulation).
Technical Paper

Investigation on different Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injected Turbocharged CNG-Engine

2006-09-14
2006-01-3000
Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. To demonstrate the potential of natural gas direct injection, especially in combination with supercharging, some experimental investigations were carried out using a single-cylinder engine unit with lateral injector position. For this purpose different injection valve nozzles, piston crown geometries as well as operating strategies were investigated. First experimental results show that it is also possible to better support the combustion process by providing a late injection of a part of the fuel, near ignition point, so that the additional induced turbulence can speed up the flame propagation 1 Mixture formation with gaseous fuels due to its low mass density is more critical than in gasoline engines, because even high injection velocities still produce very low fuel penetration.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a CNG Driven SI Engine Within a Parallel Hybrid Power Train by Using EGR and an Oversized Turbocharger with Active-WG Control

2010-04-12
2010-01-0820
The hybrid power train technology offers various prospects to optimize the engine efficiency in order to minimize the CO₂ emissions of an internal-combustion-engine-powered vehicle. Today different types of hybrid architectures like parallel, serial, power split or through-the-road concepts are commonly known. To achieve lowest fuel consumption the following hybrid electric vehicle drive modes can be used: Start/Stop, pure electric/thermal driving, recuperation of brake energy and the hybrid mode. The high complexity of the interaction between those power sources requires an extensive investigation to determine the optimal configuration of a natural-gas-powered SI engine within a parallel hybrid power train. Therefore, a turbocharged 1.0-liter 3-cylinder CNG engine was analyzed on the test bench. Using an optimized combustion strategy, the engine was operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio applying both high- and low-pressure EGR.
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