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Technical Paper

FUELLING A AGRICULTURE DIESEL ENGINE WITH DERIVATIVE OF PALM OIL

2004-01-16
2004-28-0039
As neat crude palm oil is not ideally suitable as a fuel for diesel engines because of its high viscosity; process of transesterification was adopted to develop methyl ester of palm oil that approximate the properties and performance of hydrocarbon-based diesel fuel. Various properties of the methyl ester of palm oil were evaluated and compared in relation with that of neat diesel. The prepared methyl ester of palm oil, blended in different concentrations with neat diesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to evaluate its suitability in diesel engine. The data thus generated were compared with base line data generated from neat diesel. An optimal blend of 10-20% methyl ester of palm oil with neat diesel exhibited best performance and smooth engine operation without any symptoms of undesired combustion phenomenon. This suggests use of 10-20% of biodiesel developed from palm oil in diesel engine with out any difficulty.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Application of Turbo Expansion in Light Duty Gasoline and Diesel Engines: A Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0051
Turboexpansion is a concept which is aimed at reducing the fuel consumption of pressure-charged combustion engines by providing over-cooled air to the engine prior to its induction in the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine is dependent on intake charge density which is preferred to be high at reduced charge air temperature. This becomes achievable through a cooling system known as a turbo expander which expands a high-pressure gas to produce work that is usually employed to drive a compressor. Though, initially used for the purpose of refrigeration in industries, for the past few decades various researches have proved its efficiency in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, it is usually employed to extend the knock limit and reduce carbon emissions. Also, an extension to the knock limit allows several improvements in parameters such as increased specific output, an increase in compression ratio and a reduction in the fuel consumption of the engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emission Characteristics of Blend of Algae Oil Methyl Ester with Diesel in a Medium Capacity Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1378
Primary energy sources can be divided into non-renewable and renewable. The over-exploration of non-renewable sources for energy availability imposes considerable impacts on the environment. Reducing the use of fossil fuels would significantly reduce the carbon dioxide emissions and other pollutants produced. The future drift for sustainable production of renewable energy is cautiously thoughtful for it has been increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, majorly produced from food crops that are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and economic growth. These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non-edible feedstock such as microalgae, which potentially offers greatest opportunities in the longer term. Microalgae are considered a very promising feedstock for biodiesel production due to their very high yield and their no competition with food crops.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Mahua Oil Biodiesel Blend with Diesel and Diesel Fuel in a Medium Capacity Compression Ignition Employing Urea-SCR with Cu-ZSM5

2014-04-01
2014-01-1499
The present world scenario faces a serious threat from increasing dependence on fossil fuels. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel may be considered as a good substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. In terms of emissions from biodiesel, the cause of concern continues to be the NOx emissions. Therefore, to compliment the functioning of biodiesels, Urea-SCR over Cu-ZSM5 catalyst is an effective option due to its ability to convert NOx into nitrogen and water. There has been increasing concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term. The recent paper focuses on use of two non-edible oils mahua oil and fish oil (processed from waste produced by fish).
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit for Small Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1666
The transportation sector faces great and urgent challenges, including climate impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, local health impacts of criteria pollutants, and political & economic impacts of petroleum dependence. While several revolutionary solutions are being developed to reduce the impact of motor vehicles, such as increased fuel economy standards and accelerated adoption of hybrid vehicles, revolutionary new approaches must also be evaluated. One such opportunity is found in Compressed Air Engine (CA Engine), which is powered solely by compressed air stored in a vehicle on-board pressurized tank. Proponents of this technology claim CA Engines are greener and cheaper to operate, since they do not consume fossil fuels and produce zero tail-pipe emissions, while offering the power and performance needed for light-duty vehicle use.
Technical Paper

Some Experimental Studies on Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of an Agricultural Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Kusum Oil Methyl Ester and Diesel

2014-04-01
2014-01-1952
Biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils is of paramount significance in India due to insufficient edible oil production. The present work deals with relatively underutilized non-edible oil “Schleichera oleosa” or “Kusum”. The Kusum biodiesel (KB) was produced using a two stage esterification cum transesterification process as the free fatty acid content of the oil was high. Important physico-chemical properties were evaluated and they were found to conform with corresponding ASTM/EN standards. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trial by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of KB in diesel by volume and were named as KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40 respectively. The results showed that full load brake thermal efficiency was dropped by 3.8% to 17% with increase in KB composition in the test fuel. Diesel (D100) showed the maximum full load brake specific energy consumption followed by KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40.
Technical Paper

Scope of Fe-ZSM5 Zeolite Based Urea-SCR with Fish Oil Bio-Diesel Fuel in Compressed Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1541
The present consumption rates and heavy dependence on fossil fuels pose a humongous threat to the environment. The increased pollution in urban areas is already causing serious sociological, ecological and economic implications. The issue of energy security led governments and researchers to look for alternate means of renewable and environment friendly fuels. Biodiesel has been one of the promising, and economically viable alternatives. The biodiesels are reported to cause reduction in CO, HC and PM emissions. However, NOx emissions are increased in case of biodiesel in CI engine. Therefore, a Urea-SCR over Fe-ZSM5 honeycomb substrate (400cpsi) zeolite catalyst after treatment system is an effective technology to reduce emissions for biodiesel applications. Exhaust gases pass through the catalyst and reactions take place along its surface, consequently converting NOx into nitrogen and H2O.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of 1-Octanol/Diesel Fuel Blends in a Water Cooled Compression Ignition Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2830
The interest of using alternative fuels in diesel engines has been accelerated exponentially due to a foreseen scarcity in world petroleum reserves, increase in the prices of the conventional fossil fuels and restrictions on exhaust emissions such as greenhouse gases from internal combustion (IC) engines initiated by environmental concerns. The constant trade-off between efficiency and emissions should be in proper balance with the conventional fuels in a fuel design process for future combustors. Unlike gasoline and diesel, alcohols act as oxygenated fuels. Adding alcohols to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust properly due to the presence of oxygen, which enhances premixed combustion phase, improves the diffusive combustion phase which increases the combustion efficiency and reduces air pollution. The higher activation energy of alcohols leads to better resistance to engine knocking that allows higher compression ratios and greater engine thermal efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel-Alcohol-Diesel Blends Fuelled in VCR Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2265
The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Study on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Techniques for Application in V/STOL Aircrafts

2015-09-15
2015-01-2423
The art and science of thrust vectoring technology has seen a gradual shift towards fluidic thrust vectoring techniques owing to the potential they have to greatly influence the aircraft propulsion systems. The prime motive of developing a fluidic thrust vectoring system has been to reduce the weight of the mechanical thrust vectoring system and to further simplify the configuration. Aircrafts using vectored thrust rely to a lesser extent on aerodynamic control surfaces such as ailerons or elevator to perform various maneuvers and turns than conventional-engine aircrafts and thus have a greater advantage in combat situations. Fluidic thrust vectoring systems manipulate the primary exhaust flow with a secondary air stream which is typically bled from the engine compressor or fan. This causes the compressor operating curve to shift from the optimum condition, allowing the optimization of engine performance. These systems make both pitch and yaw vectoring possible.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Recent Advancements in the Field of Variable Compression Ratio Engine Technology

2016-04-05
2016-01-0669
The Automobile industry is under great stress due to greenhouse gas emissions and health impacts of pollutants. The rapid decrease of fossil fuels has promoted the development of engine designs having higher fuel economy. At the same time, these designs keep the stringent emission standards in check without sacrificing brake power. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is one such measure. This work reviews the technological advancements in the design of a VCR engine. VCR engines can minimize possible risks of irregular combustion while optimizing Brake specific fuel consumption towards higher power and torque. An increase in fuel economy is seen for VCR naturally aspirated engines when coupled with downsizing. In addition to this, emissions of carbon dioxide decreases due to effective utilization of fuel at high loads. Since the first VCR design, there have been various modifications and improvements in VCR engine design.
Technical Paper

Optimization Techniques to Improve the Efficiency of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1210
At present, vast numbers of problems are triggered due to growing global energy crisis and rising energy costs. Since, on-road vehicles constitute the majority share of transportation; any energy losses in them will have a direct effect on the overall global energy scenario. Most of the energy lost is dissipated from the exhaust, cooling, and lubrication systems, and, most importantly, in the braking system. About 6% of the total energy produced is lost with the airstream in form of heat energy when brakes are applied. Thus, various technological systems need to be developed to conserve energy by minimize energy losses while application of brakes. Regenerative Braking is one such system or an energy recovery mechanism causing the vehicle to decelerate by converting its kinetic energy into another form (usually electricity), which further can be used either immediately or stored until needed.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intake Runner of a CI Engine for Performance Enhancement and Emission Reductions Due to Variations in Air Flow Pattern within the Runner

2016-04-05
2016-01-1015
Recent scenario of fossil fuel depletion as well as rising emission levels has witnessed an ever aggravating trend for decades. The solution to the problems has been addressed by investments and research in the field of fuels; such as the use of cleaner fuels involving biodiesel, alcohol blends, hydrogen and electric drivelines, as well as improvement in traditional technologies such as variable geometry systems, VVT load control strategies etc. The developments have highlighted the enormous potential present in such systems in terms of maximizing engine efficiency and emission reductions. The present paper aims at designing and implementing an intake runner system for a CI engine capable of providing flexibility with variations in operating conditions. Primarily, the design aims at altering the air flow phenomenon within the primary intake of the engine by inducing swirl in the runner through a secondary runner.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emissions Parameters of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Micro Emulsion of Jatropha Oil and Ethanol

2017-10-08
2017-01-2331
The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability with better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of non-edible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems. In Asian countries like India, great need of edible oil as a food so cannot use these oils as alternative fuels for diesel engine. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. This research prepared micro emulsions of ethanol and Jatropha vegetable oil in different ratio and find out the physico-chemical parameters to compare with mineral diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Performance Analyses of Diesel Engine at Different Injection Angles Using Water Diesel Emulsion

2013-09-17
2013-01-2170
Globally, transportation is the second largest energy consuming sector after the industrial sector and is completely dependent on petroleum products and alternative technologies. So, fossil fuel consumption for energy requirement is a primary concern and can be addressed with the fuel consumption reduction technologies. Transportation sector is mainly using diesel engines because of production of high thermal efficiency and higher torque at lower RPM. Therefore, diesel consumption should be targeted for future energy security and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines. Some of the fuel, which includes biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions etc. Among which the diesel water emulsion (DWE) is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Flow Simulation and Theoretical Investigation on Aerodynamics of NACA-2415 Aerofoil at Low Reynolds Number

2015-09-15
2015-01-2576
The Aerofoil theory along with its design has integrated itself into the vast areas of applications ranging from Automobile, Aeronautical, Wind Turbine, Micro-Vehicles, UAVs applications. In this paper, knowing the intricacy of the airfoil's applications, A MATLAB Code for NACA-2415 Airfoil is developed and a Model with dimensions c=180mm, w=126mm, tmax=27mm is generated. The model is then subjected to Flow Simulation with various input parameters: Reynolds Numbers taken are- (REN-1) 105 and (REN-2) 2×105 [Laminar External Flow], Angles of attack taken are-0°, 4°, 8°, 12°. The pressure and velocity distribution along the airfoil sketch curve are graphed qualitatively, emphasizing on the flow separation leading to the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The various aerodynamics characteristic curves for coefficient of pressure, coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag are plotted against different angle of attacks for REN-1 and REN-2.
Technical Paper

A Study on Homogeneous Combustion in Porous Medium Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

2017-03-28
2017-01-0788
Rapid depletion in fuel resources owing to the low efficiency of current automobiles has been a major threat to future generations for fuel availability as well as environmental health. Advanced new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines are expected to have far better emissions levels both gaseous (NOx and CO) and particulate matter, at the same time having far lower fuel consumption on a wide range of operating condition. These criteria could be improved having a homogeneous combustion process in an engine. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air in HCCI leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions. Since peak temperatures are significantly lower than in typical SI engines, NOx levels and soot are reduced to some extent. Because of absence of complete homogeneous combustion but quasi homogeneous combustion present in HCCI, there is still a possibility of further reducing the emissions as well as enhancing the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Natural Convection around a Pair of Circular Cylinders inside a Square Enclosure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0776
Heat exchangers are widely used in various transportation, industrial, or domestic applications such as thermal power plants, means of heating, transporting and air conditioning systems, electronic equipment and space vehicles. In all these applications improvements in the efficiency of the heat exchangers can lead to substantial cost, space and material savings. Hence considerable research work has been done in the past to seek effective ways to improve the efficiency of heat exchangers. In this paper the effect of natural convection is justified between exterior solid wall surfaces and the surrounding air inside the enclosure. Designing of electronic devices, heavy industrial equipments such as boilers, turbines etc. and building aerodynamics are some of the real world application associated with this study.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion, Analysis of Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Mahua Oil Methyl Ester and Diesel

2014-10-13
2014-01-2651
The rising cost and limited availability of crude oil in international market has provided an opportunity to look for substitute of fossil fuel. Scientists all over the world are experimenting on variety of renewable fuels for meeting the future energy demands. Bio origin fuels are fast becoming potential alternative resources to replace the fossil fuels. The vegetable oils, derived from oil seed crops have got 90 to 95% energy value of diesel on volume basis, comparable cetane number and can substitute upto 20% (v/v) of diesel fuel. Mahua seed oil is common ingredient of hydrogenated fat. Two-step transesterification process was employed to synthesize biodiesel from Mahua Oil (Madhuca-indica) and analysis of Physico-chemical properties as well as the combustion, performance and emission characteristics was done by taking 10, 20 and 100 % blend with diesel. The physico-chemical properties of the blends were found to be comparable to diesel.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Bio-Diesel in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2773
The world today is facing the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the rate of consumption of Fossil derived fuels is alarming. The use of non-conventional energy sources is to be increased so as to tackle the global climatic changes, environmental pollution and also to lower down the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. The urgent need to replace the petroleum products having harmful emissions has leaded us to the Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a well-known alternative for diesel with an advantage over the later because of its biodegradable, less toxic nature, superior lubricity, better emission characteristics and in a way environment friendly. The present study focuses on the comparative study and analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a light duty diesel engine on blends of Fish oil Biodiesel in Diesel and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Biodiesel in Diesel.
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