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Technical Paper

The Theoretical Development of Vehicle Engine Cooling Airflow Models Using Incompressible Flow Methods

A one-dimensional incompressible flow model covering the mechanisms involved in the airflow through an automotive radiator-shroud-fan system with no heat transfer was developed. An analytical expression to approximate the experimentally determined fan performance characteristics was used in conjunction with an analytical approach for this simplified cooling airflow model, and the solution is discussed with illustrations. A major result of this model is a closed form equation relating the transient velocity of the air to the vehicle speed, pressure rise characteristics and speed of the fan, as well as the dimensions and resistance of the radiator. This provides a basis for calculating cooling airflow rate under various conditions. The results of the incompressible flow analysis were further compared with the computational results obtained with a previously developed one-dimensional, transient, compressible flow model.
Technical Paper

The Use of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation as a Cooling System Diesel Tool

Enhanced VECSS simulation program was tested for use as a cooling system design tool. The design parameters indicated in the study were varying fan type, fan speed, engine power rating, radiator style and air conditioning condenser. The predicted temperature results were compared to the experimental data, and were found to follow the measured trends, and in cases when the exact parameters were simulated, were found to match the temperature amplitudes.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 1 - Model Development

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of the cooling system of an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. This code includes an engine cycle analysis program along with various components for the four main fluid circuits for cooling air, cooling water, cooling oil, and intake air, all evaluated simultaneously. The code predicts the operation of the response of the cooling circuit, oil circuit, and the engine compartment air flow when the VECSS is operated using driving cycle data of vehicle speed, engine speed, and fuel flow rate for a given ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 2 – Model Validation Using Transient Data

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of a cooling system for an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. In Part 1 of this research, the code development and verification has been presented. The revised and enhanced VECSS (version 8.1) software is capable of simulating in real-time a Freightliner FLD 120 truck with a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, Allied signal / Garrett Automotive charge air cooler and turbocharger, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch, DDC oil and coolant thermostat. Other cooling system components were run and compared with experimental data provided by Kysor Cooling Systems. The experimental data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Control's (DDEC) Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Hewlett Packard (HP) data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Vaporization Histories and Trajectories of Fuel Drops Injected into Swirling Air

Single droplet theory is used to simulate the behavior of fuel sprays in high-speed open-chamber diesels. A model for sprays in still air is presented which includes the air motion induced by the spray. Calculated paths and vaporization histories for droplets injected into swirling air are also presented. It is shown that the paths of vaporizing drops are closely approximated by solid sphere calculations. The effects of swirl speed, engine rpm, and squish air motion are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Engine Aftertreatment System Simulation (VEASS) Model: Application to a Controls Design Strategy for Active Regeneration of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

Heavy-duty diesel engine particulate matter (PM) emissions must be reduced from 0.1 to 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour by 2007 due to EPA regulations [1]. A catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is used to capture PM in the exhaust stream, but as PM accumulates in the CPF, exhaust flow is restricted resulting in reduced horsepower and increased fuel consumption. PM must therefore be burned off, referred to as CPF regeneration. Unfortunately, nominal exhaust temperatures are not always high enough to cause stable self-regeneration when needed. One promising method for active CPF regeneration is to inject fuel into the exhaust stream upstream of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC). The chemical energy released during the oxidation of the fuel in the OCC raises the exhaust temperature and allows regeneration.
Technical Paper

Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filters—Their Pressure Drop and Collection Efficiency

The present study investigates the pressure drop and filtration characteristics of wall-flow diesel particulate monoliths, with the aid of a mathematical model. An analytic solution to the model equations describing exhaust gas mass and momentum conservation, in the axial direction of a monolith cell, and pressure drop across its porous walls has been obtained. The solution is in very good agreement with available experimental data on the pressure drop of a typical wall-flow monolith. The capture of diesel particles by the monolith, is described applying the theory of filtration through a bed of spherical collectors. This simple model, is in remarkable agreement with the experimental data, collected during the present and previous studies, for the accumulation mode particles (larger than 0.1 μm).
Technical Paper

“A Flame Ionization Technique for Measuring Total Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust”

The method of flame ionization was used for measuring total hydrocarbons in both single-cylinder and multicylinder 4-cycle, direct injection diesel engine exhaust. Use of the emission parameters of hydrocarbon concentration, per cent unburned fuel, specific hydrocarbon rate, mass of hydrocarbons per million cycles, mass of hydrocarbons per mile, and mass of hydrocarbons per ton-mile are discussed. The basic approach used in the flame ionization detector is shown. The hydrocarbon sample was transferred from the exhaust system through a heated sample line and oven operating at 375 F. The sample line was aspirated to reduce the sample residence time to 2 sec. The effect various sampling locations have on hydrocarbon measurements from a single-cylinder engine is shown and discussed. The effects of load, speed, and injection timing on hydrocarbon emission data are shown for a single-cylinder engine.