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Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by a Synthetic Lubricating Oil with Higher Viscosity Grade and Optimized Additive Package for a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Test

2008-10-06
2008-01-2489
A 10W-50 G4 synthetic lubricating oil (EULUBE oil) was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under two steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a 10W-30 CF semi-synthetic lubricating oil. The EULUBE oil contained the friction reduction additive to improve the fuel economy. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Gaseous and particulates emissions were measured. Particulate size distribution was measured using ELPI and SMPS. The particulate samples were analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. The results showed a significant reduction by synthetic lubricating oil in gaseous hydrocarbon emissions, total particulate mass, particulate carbon and ash.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Parameters Ensuring Reliable Regeneration of a Sintered Metal Particulate Filter using a Fuel Borne Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2485
The operating cycle of many vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters is such that soot accumulates within the filter and must periodically be oxidised. Work was carried out on a passenger car engine to elucidate how fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to soot ratio, oxygen mass flow rate, temperature and soot loading influence the oxidation rate of soot accumulated in a sintered metal filter (SMF). Results show that soot loading had a major influence; increased soot loading increased the oxidation rate. The other parameter had a smaller influence with increasing oxygen flow rate and FBC/soot ratio each increasing the oxidation rate.
Technical Paper

Testing of Combined DPF+SCR Systems for HD-retrofitting – VERTdePN

2009-04-20
2009-01-0284
New Diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, with combined DPF*) and deNOx (mostly SCR) systems represent a very important step towards zero emission Diesel fleet. These combined systems are already offered today by several suppliers for retrofitting of HD vehicles. Reliable quality standards for those quite complex systems are urgently needed to enable decisions of several authorities. The present report informs about the international network project VERT *) dePN (de-activation, de-contamination, disposal of particles and NOx), which was started in Nov. 2006 with the objective to introduce the SCR-, or combined DPF+SCR-systems in the VERT verification procedure. Examples of results for some of the investigated systems are given. These investigations included parameters, which are important for the VERT quality testing: besides the regulated gaseous emissions several unregulated components such as NH3, NO2 and N2O were measured.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Pre-Heating on Combustion and Emissions with 100% Rapeseed Oil for a DI Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0486
This work investigates the heating of unprocessed rapeseed oil as a means to improve fuel delivery by reducing the fuel viscosity, and to assess the effects on combustion performance. The results show that a simple low power heater with thermal insulation around the fuel line and pump can effectively raise the operational fuel temperature at delivery to the pump. The results show that even with a moderate temperature increase, the fuel flow limitations with rapeseed oil are reduced and the legislated gaseous emissions are reduced at steady state conditions. As one of the main reasons for the conversion of straight oils to the methyl ester, ie biodiesel, is to reduce the viscosity, this work shows that heating the oil can have a similar effect. An emissions benefit is observed with biodiesel compared to rapeseed oil but this is not large. There is also a significant greenhouse gas and cost benefit associated with straight vegetable oils.
Technical Paper

Impact of RME/Diesel Blends on Particle Formation, Particle Filtration and PAH Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1728
Vegetable oils blended to Diesel fuel are becoming popular. Economic, ecological and even political reasons are cited to decrease dependence on mineral oil and improve CO2 balance. The chemical composition of these bio fuels is different from mineral fuel, having less carbon and much more oxygen. Hence, internal combustion of Diesel + RME (Rapeseed Methyl Ester) blends was tested with particular focus on nanoparticle emissions, particle filtration characteristics and PAH-emissions. Fuel economy and emissions of bus engines were investigated in traffic, on a test-rig during standardized cycles, and on the chassis dynamometer. Fuel compositions were varied from standard EN 590 Diesel with <50 ppm sulfur to RME blends of 15, 30, and 50%. Also 100 % RME was tested on the test-rig. Emissions were compared with and without CRT traps. The PAH profiles of PM were determined. Particles were counted and analyzed for size, surface, and composition, using SMPS, PAS, DC and Coulometry.
Technical Paper

Practical Experience of Fitting DPFs to Buses in Chile

2005-05-11
2005-01-2146
Continuing research into the effect of vehicle emissions is driving legislation, which is increasingly being enacted to encourage the retrofitting of emissions control devices. Of particular concern are emissions of diesel particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. More recently the adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide in particular, have been highlighted. A programme of work is underway in Santiago to demonstrate the suitability of retrofitting diesel particulate filters (DPF) to urban buses. This paper presents data, including regulated and unregulated emissions, from a bus fitted with a DPF that relies on a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Metal Emissions, NO2 and HC Reduction from a Base Metal Catalysed DPF/FBC System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0420
Due to concerns over NO2 emissions from platinum catalysts a base metal catalysed diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed and used in combination with fuel borne catalysts (FBC). Results are presented showing reductions in HC, NOX, NO2, and PAH emissions along with an assessment of the emissions of metals used in the FBC and the catalysed DPF. This data is used to show the likely reduction in overall iron and other metal emissions as a result of using the catalysed DPF/FBC system. A similar system has also been assessed for durability for over 2000 hours when fitted to a bus in regular service in Switzerland.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems with Fuel Additives for Enhanced Regeneration Characteristics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0112
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) are well known as a developing form of exhaust after-treatment for compression ignition engines. Subjected to extensive testing in experimental form, DPFs have yet to achieve widespread application in regular use on production road vehicles, despite their potential for delivering reductions of typically 90% in diesel exhaust particulate emissions. Tests have shown that different additives are effective in enhancing performance in a range of DPF types, and on engines of different configurations. Efforts have been made to correlate performance with engine operating regime, by linking soot particulate condition to the frequency of regeneration. A performance index has been developed to try to predict regeneration characteristics with additive treated fuel. The work has shown that there are engine operating conditions producing soot which is less likely to burn off in the DPF.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Retro-Fitting Construction Site Engines VERT: Final Measurements and Implementation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0116
1 The VERT project aimed at curtailing the construction site diesel emissions of ultra-fine particles to 1% of the raw emissions. Thus, compliance with occupational health legislation should be achieved. Particulate traps have attained this target. In contrast, engine tuning, reformulated fuels and oxidation catalytic converters are almost ineffective. This paper reports on the concluding project stage in which 10 traps were field tested during 2 years. Subsequent detailed measurements confirmed the excellent results: > 99% filtration rate was achieved in the nano-particulate range. The PAH, too, were very efficiently eliminated. Trap deployment becomes therefore imperative to fulfill VERT-targets.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Construction Machines Properties and Field Experience

2000-06-19
2000-01-1923
1 Occupational Health Authorities in Germany and Switzerland require the use of particulate traps (PT) on construction machines used in underground and in tunneling since 1994. Swiss EPA has extended this requirement 1998 to all construction sites which are in or close to cities. During the VERT*-project, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]**, traps systems were evaluated for this purpose and only those providing efficiencies over 95% for ultrafine particles < 200 nm have received official recommendation. 10 trap-systems are very popular now for these application, most of them for retrofitting existing engines. Efficiency data will be given as well as experience during a 2-years authority-controlled field test. LIEBHERR, producing their own Diesel engines in Switzerland and construction machines in Germany is the first company worldwide supplying particulate traps as OEM-feature (Original Equipment Manufacturing) on customers request.
Technical Paper

A Method for Assessing the Low Temperature Regeneration Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel-borne Catalysts

2000-06-19
2000-01-1922
Fuel-borne catalysts are now an accepted means of aiding the self-regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). In the past it has been possible to assess the effect of these fuel additives by investigating the temperature at which the filter reaches a pressure drop equilibrium. Under these temperature conditions, the particulate matter is oxidised at the same rate as it is being deposited and there is thus no change in pressure drop across the filter. This technique adequately demonstrates the oxidation temperature of the carbon in the presence of the catalyst. However, it is now well known that such fuel additives also influence the low temperature oxidation of particulate bound hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is not detected by the filter equilibrium technique.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps Used in City-Buses in Switzerland

2000-06-19
2000-01-1927
1 Switzerland is enforcing the use of particulate traps for offroad applications like construction as well as for occupational health applications like tunneling. This decision is based on the results of the VERT-project (1994-1999), which included basic aerosol research, bench screening and field testing of promising solutions as well as the development of implementation tools like trap specification, certification scheems and field control measures. On the other hand there is no corresponding regulation for city-buses yet although PM 10 is about 2× above limit in most Swiss cities. Public pressure however is growing and city transport authorities have reacted by retrofitting Diesel city-buses instead of waiting for cleaner engine technology or CNG-conversions. The favored trap system with about 200 retrofits so far is the CRT.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

VERT - Clean Diesel Engines for Tunnel Construction

1997-02-24
970478
Diesel engines are irreplaceable in tunnel construction. The particulate emissions of present day engines are so high that the imission limits valid since 1991 cannot be attained by ventilation alone. This problem had to be solved preparatory to the large tunnel projects in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Several retro-fitting measures were investigated both in the laboratory and in field tests, within the scope of the Project VERT. Oxidation catalytic converters, exhaust gas recirculation, and the usage of special fuels cannot be recommended. Particulate trap deployment, in different systems, was mostly successful. Particular attention was focused on the dependable filtration of finest particulates < 200 nm. The VERT proved that exhaust gas after-treatment with particulate traps is feasible, cost effective and controllable in the field. Pertinent directives are in discussion.
Technical Paper

Microfiber Knits for Catalytic Converters

1997-02-24
970479
Microfibers with high specific micro-surface can be knitted into two-dimensional structures with large internal porosity. Catalytically active metals can be deposited on the fibers with high dispersion by wet-impregnation, sol-gel or CVD, respectively. These microfiber knits may be used for exhaust gas treatment systems with a triple function: particle filtration, gas conversion and muffling. The total oxidation of propane on Pd and Pt coated fibers has been studied as a test reaction. Conversion temperature could be remarkably reduced compared to cellular structures. For a bimetallic (Pt-Pd) coating, the activity is independent of humidity or oxygen concentration. Thus a catalytic converter based on micro-fiber knits appears feasible. Its high mass and heat transfer prevent hot spots. And it functions as submicron filter for combustion aerosols. Integrated electric heating can also be provided in case of low gas temperatures. First tests on engines show promising results.
Technical Paper

Fouling of Two Stage Injectors - An Investigation into Some Causes and Effects

1997-05-01
971619
In the quest for improved fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions, motor manufacturers are increasingly turning to the High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger car use. To achieve acceptable levels of noise and emissions at low loads two stage injection is being utilised. Such injection systems are prone to nozzle coking due to the small fuel metering holes, low opening pressures and low fuel flow rates under part load operation. This coking leads to a rapid deterioration of emissions performance. This paper describes work done to investigate conditions leading to this phenomena and the possible mechanisms involved.
Technical Paper

Improved Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Performance Using Fuel Soluble Additives

1999-10-25
1999-01-3562
Interest has been growing in many countries in the potential use of diesel particulate filters (DPF). This type of after treatment technology has been shown to make very significant reductions in both the mass of particulate emitted in diesel exhaust gas, and also in the number of fine particulates, which have been linked in recent years with concerns for human health. Work carried out during a development programme investigating the capability of fuel soluble metallic additives to assist DPF regeneration, indicated superior performance from a novel combination of metals in fuel soluble form. Earlier work showed that a fuel soluble combination of organo-metallic additives based on sodium and strontium gave very effective regeneration characteristics, and was capable of burning out carbon at temperatures from about 160°C.
Technical Paper

Best Available Technology for Emission Reduction of Small 4S-SI-Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3338
1 Small off-road 4-stroke SI-engines have extraordinarily high pollutant emissions. These must be curtailed to comply with the new Swiss clean air act LRV 98. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigated the state of the technology. The aim was a cleaner agricultural walk behind mower with a 10kW 4-stroke SI-engine. Two engine designs were compared: side-valve and OHV. A commercially available 3-way catalytic converter system substantially curtailed emissions: In the ISO 8178 G test-cycle-average, HC was minimized to 8% and CO to 5% of raw emissions. At part load points, the residual emission was < 1%. Simultaneously, fuel consumption improved 10%. Using a special gasoline (Swiss standard SN 181 163), the aromatic hydrocarbons were curtailed, e.g. Benzene < 1%, and fuel consumption further improved. Those results were confirmed in field tests. The engine is approved for retrofitting.
Journal Article

Temperature Programmed Oxidation as a Technique for Understanding Diesel Fuel System Deposits

2010-05-05
2010-01-1475
The fuel injection equipment (FIE) has always been paramount to the performance of the Diesel engine. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations have dictated that the FIE becomes more precise and sophisticated. The latest generation FIE is therefore less tolerant to deposit formation than its less finely engineered predecessors. However, the latest emissions regulations make it increasingly difficult for engine manufacturers to comply without the use of exhaust aftertreatment. This aftertreatment often relies on catalytic processes that can be impaired by non-CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) components within the fuel. Fuel producers have therefore also been obliged to make major changes to try and ensure that with the latest technology engines and aftertreatment systems the fuel is still fit for purpose. However, there has recently been a significant increase in the incidence of reported problems due to deposit build-up within vehicle fuel systems.
Journal Article

Waste Lubricating Oil as a Source of Hydrogen Fuel using Chemical Looping Steam Reforming

2010-10-25
2010-01-2192
Initial results are presented for the production of hydrogen from waste lubricating oil using a chemical looping reforming (CLR) process. The development of flexible and sustainable sources of hydrogen will be required to facilitate a "hydrogen economy." The novel CLR process presented in this paper has an advantage over hydrogen production from conventional steam reforming because CLR can use complex, low value, waste oils. Also, because the process is scalable to small and medium size, hydrogen can be produced close to where it is required, minimizing transport costs. Waste lubricating oil typically contains 13-14% weight of hydrogen, which through the steam reforming process could produce a syngas containing around 75 vol% H₂, representing over 40 wt% of the fuel. The waste oil was converted to a hydrogen-rich syngas in a packed bed reactor, using a Ni/ Al₂O₃ catalyst as the oxygen transfer material (OTM).
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