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Journal Article

Possible Mechanism for Poor Diesel Fuel Lubricity in the Field

Traditionally, diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) has frequently relied on the diesel fuel to lubricate the moving parts. When ultra low sulphur diesel fuel was first introduced into some European markets in the early 1980's it rapidly became apparent that the process of removing the sulphur also removed other components that had bestowed the lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Diesel fuel pump failures became prevalent. The fuel additive industry responded quickly and diesel fuel lubricity additives were introduced to the market. The fuel, additive and FIE industries expended much time and effort to develop test methods and standards to try and ensure this problem was not repeated. Despite this, there have recently been reports of fuel reaching the end user with lubricating performance below the accepted standards.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Journal Article

Effect of Multifunctional Fuel Additive Package on Fuel Injector Deposit, Combustion and Emissions using Pure Rape Seed Oil for a DI Diesel

This work investigates the effect of a multifunctional diesel fuel additive package used with RapeSeed Oil (RSO) as a fuel in a DI heavy duty diesel engine. The effects on fuel injectors’ cleanliness were assessed. The aim was to maintain combustion performance and preventing the deterioration of exhaust emissions associated with injector deposit build up. Two scenarios were investigated: the effect of deposit clean-up by a high dose of the additive package; and the effect of deposit prevention using a moderate dose of the additive package. Engine combustion performance and emissions were compared for each case against use of RSO without any additive. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, fitted with an oxidation catalyst and meeting the Euro II emissions limits. The tests were conducted under steady state conditions of 23kW and 47kW power output at an engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Journal Article

Properties of Partial-Flow and Coarse Pore Deep Bed Filters Proposed to Reduce Particle Emission of Vehicle Engines

Four of these Particulate Reduction Systems (PMS) were tested on a passenger car and one of them on a HDV. Expectation of the research team was that they would reach at least a PM-reduction of 30% under all realistic operating conditions. The standard German filter test procedure for PMS was performed but moreover, the response to various operating conditions was tested including worst case situations. Besides the legislated CO, NOx and PM exhaust-gas emissions, also the particle count and NO2 were measured. The best filtration efficiency with one PMS was indeed 63%. However, under critical but realistic conditions filtration of 3 of 4 PMS was measured substantially lower than the expected 30 %, depending on operating conditions and prior history, and could even completely fail. Scatter between repeated cycles was very large and results were not reproducible. Even worse, with all 4 PMS deposited soot, stored in these systems during light load operation was intermittently blown-off.
Technical Paper

Rape Seed Oil B100 Diesel Engine Particulate Emissions: The Influence of Intake Oxygen on Particle Size Distribution

Pure rape seed oil (RSO), as coded BO100 (BO: Bio-Oil) to distinguish from biodiesel was investigated for a range of intake oxygen levels from 21 to 24%. RSO can have deposit problems in both the fuel injector and piston crown and elevated intake oxygen levels potentially could control these by promoting their oxidation. Increased intake oxygen elevates the peak temperature and this promotes the oxidation of soot and volatile organic compounds. The effect of this on particle mass and on the particle size distribution was investigated using a 6-cylinder 6-liter Perkins Phaser Euro 2 DI diesel engine. The tests were conducted at 47 kW brake power output at 1500 rpm. The particle size distribution was determined from the engine-out exhaust sample using a Dekati microdilution system and nano-SMPS analyzer. The results showed that for air RSO had higher particle mass than diesel and that this mass decreased as the oxygen level was increased.
Technical Paper

Passive Regeneration of Catalyst Coated Knitted Fiber Diesel Particulate Traps

Knitted fiber particulate traps facilitate deep-bed structures. These have excellent filtration properties, particularly for ultra-fine particulates. They are also suitable as substrate for catalytic processes. The two characteristics are: high total surface area of the filaments, and good mass transfer. These are prerequisites for intense catalytic activity. The deposited soot is uniformly distributed. Therefore, temperature peaks are avoided during regeneration. The tested coatings lower the regeneration temperature by about 200°C to burn-off temperatures below 350°C. Further improvements seem attainable. Thus, a purely passive regeneration appears feasible for most applications. The system is autonomous and cost effective. However, in extreme low load situations, e.g. city bus services, the necessary exhaust temperatures are not attained. Hence, burners or electrical heating is necessary for trap regeneration.
Technical Paper

Trapping Efficiency Depending on Particulate Size

There is growing concern about the risk potential of Diesel particulates. This prompted two Swiss R&D projects focused on the capabilities of different soot trap concepts for filtering finest particulates. Eight different filter media, some in numerous variants, were tested on four different Diesel engines. All traps attained their gravimetric target. However, there are noticeable performance differences for finest particulates at or smaller than 50 nm. Fiber deep filters seem to be noticeably better than other filter types. If the carcinogens are mainly the finest particulates, then this criterion may become important in future trap evaluation.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective Solution to Reduce Particulate Emissions

Growing concern over the health effects of airborne particles and a desire to reduce the associated cost has resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Developing countries are also introducing initiatives to try and reduce emissions, an example is the legislation in India to replace diesel engines with gas fuelled engines in some major conurbations. Such measures are expensive, both in terms of replacing the engines of the vehicles and of implementing the required infrastructure. There is still also debate over whether such measures reduce the number of ultra-fine particulates. A well-proven alternative is to fit diesel engines with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), either as original equipment or as a retrofit system. Regenerating DPFs has in the past been an obstacle to their widespread application.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting of Diesel Particulate Filters - Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Dioxide

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a crucial weapon in the fight to control the downsides traditionally associated with diesel engined vehicles. The DPF not only produces the benefits required from an environmental standpoint but also has the consumer benefit of eliminating the visible black smoke associated with diesel engines. Thus DPFs have now become a reality, both for series production vehicles and as a retrofit application. Inevitably there are a number of alternative types of DPF and alternative techniques are used for ensuring they continue to function in an acceptable manner. Due to the complexity of the diesel combustion process and the emissions produced it is only to be expected that a device intended primarily to control one parameter would have some effect on other parameters. This paper looks at some different DPF technologies and how they effect emissions, with the emphasis on particulate emissions and the speciation of oxides of nitrogen.
Technical Paper

VERT Particulate Trap Verification

Particulate traps are mechanical devices for trapping soot, ash and mineral particles, to curtail emissions from Diesel engines. The filtration effectiveness of traps can be defined, independent of the pertinent engine, as a function of the particle size, space velocity and operating temperature. This method of assessment lowers cost of certifying traps for large-scale retrofitting projects [1,2]. VERT [3] is a joint project of several European environmental and occupational health agencies. The project established a trap-verification protocol that adapts industrial filtration standards [4] to include the influence of soot burden and trap regeneration phenomena. Moreover, it verifies possible catalytic effects from coating substrates and deposited catalytic active material from engine wear or fuel/ lubricant additives.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel Borne Catalysts as a Viable Solution to Reduced Airborne Particulate

There is mounting worldwide concern over the health effects of airborne ultra-fine particles. Of greatest concern are the risks due to the cancer-inducing properties of these particles and the aggravation of existing respiratory diseases by the ultra-fine (i.e. <2.5 micron) fraction. This disquiet has already resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, either mandated or proposed, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Emissions of particles from both new and existing vehicles have been addressed. With the rapid growth anticipated in some developing countries they to will need to address this problem. This paper outlines some alternative solutions to the problem, ranging from alternative power sources, alternative fuels, alternative engine technologies and after-treatment strategies. It also outlines what is required to implement these different solutions.
Technical Paper

A Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for Use with a Diesel Particulate Filter

A novel dosing system for fuel borne catalyst (FBC), used to assist regeneration with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), has been developed. The system was designed for on-board vehicle use to overcome problems encountered with batch dosing systems. Important design features were simplicity, to minimise system cost, and the use of in-line dosing rather than batch dosing linked to tank refuelling. The paper describes the development of the dosing system which continuously doses FBC into the fuel line feeding the engine injection pump. The theoretical considerations behind the concept are explored, together with the realities imposed by fuelling regimes in which a variable proportion of the fuel flowing through the injection pump is passed back to the fuel tank. Two types of system are considered, ie where 1) FBC is added to the fuel in direct proportion to the flow rate of fuel and 2) FBC is added at a constant time-based rate.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of the Benefits of DPF/FBC Systems on London Black Cabs

Future emissions limits are pushing vehicle manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a delay before the full benefit of these measures are fully realised. To overcome this problem, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been, and may be introduced. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. In some countries including the UK there are also fiscal incentives to fit DPFs. Due to its duty cycle the London taxi or Black Cab is one of the more challenging areas of application for the DPF. Previous work has shown that the use of a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can extend the operating range of DPF systems providing the possibility of a viable system for such applications.
Technical Paper

Engine Intake Throttling for Active Regeneration of Diesel Particle Filters

By means of catalysts, either coatings or fuel-borne, the temperature level for triggering the combustion of soot stored in particulate traps can be lowered from 600°C to 300°C, in case of CRT even to 250°C; but even that may fail, if in dense traffic application of a city-bus only 150 - 200°C are attained - similar situations of low load duty cycles exist in most other applications too. Mere passive regeneration may then not be sufficient, active support is needed. This paper presents an “active” method applicable to any Diesel engine to increase the exhaust temperature whenever required: load of Diesel engines is controlled by the fuel flow only; consequently, excess of air above stochiometric requirement is increasing from λ = 1.5 to λ = 8 with decreasing load, which is in fact the principal cause of the low temperature at light loads.
Technical Paper

Secondary Emissions from Catalytic Active Particle Filter Systems

Fine pored hot gas traps have filtration efficiencies exceeding 99% of the solid particles in the diesel exhaust gas. There is a favorable trend to deploy this technology ex-factory and retrofitting on-road and off-road engines. The trap system however functions as a chemical reactor. The filter has a large effective area and the engine exhaust gas has plenty of reactants, which can promote undesirable chemical reactions that release toxic secondary emissions. These effects may be amplified when traps have catalytic influence, e.g. due to surface coatings or fuel-borne catalysts. The VERT suitability tests for particle trap systems therefore include a detailed test procedure for verifying the presence of over 200 toxic substances. These include PAH, nitro-PAH, chlorinated dioxins, furans as well as metals. The paper describes test procedures, test reporting, sample extraction and analysis.
Technical Paper

Retention of Fuel Borne Catalyst Particles by Diesel Particle Filter Systems

Metallic substances, usually added to fuel as organic compounds are, as fuel additives proven to curtail particulate emissions from diesel engines and, as fuel borne catalysts (FBC), to promote regeneration of particle traps. During combustion, these substances form catalytic metal oxides and exit the combustion chamber as ultra-fine solid clusters in the mobility diameter range of 5-30 nm. Particles of this size and composition have a health impact and should not enter the respiratory air. FBC should therefore only be used together with particle traps, which can efficiently collect these metal oxide particles at all operating conditions. This and other requirements are stipulated in the VERT suitability tests for particle trap systems. The approval procedure includes a particle size-specific analysis to verify trap penetration in trace quantities.
Technical Paper

Particulates Reduction in Diesel Engines Through the Combination of a Particulate Filter and Fuel Additive

Exhaust emissions legislation for diesel engines generally limits only the mass of emitted particulate matter. This limitation reflects the concerns and measurement technology at the time the legislation was drafted. However, evolving diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems offer the potential for reductions in the mass and more importantly, the number of particles emitted from diesel exhausts. Particulate filters require frequent cleaning or regeneration of accumulated soot, if the engine is to continue to operate satisfactorily. Exothermic reactions during regeneration can lead to severe thermal gradients in the filter system resulting in damage. Fuel additives have been evaluated to show significant reductions in light off temperature which allow frequent small regeneration events to occur, under mild operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Supercharging with Comprex® to Improve the Transient Behavior of Passenger Car Diesel Engines

Transient conditions are typically encountered in passenger car engine operation, and they have a major impact on the control system driver/vehicle, as well as on emissions. While turbocharging generally deteriorates the transient behavior of a vehicle engine, supercharging with the pressure wave machine Comprex retains characteristics which are nearly equal to those of a naturally aspirated engine. The elements involved in the transient process are discussed, and their effect on road performance and emissions is shown on the basis of experimentally obtained data.
Technical Paper

Knitted Ceramic Fibers - A New Concept for Particulate Traps

Ceramic fibers with high specific surface area and adequate high-temperature strength are commercially available for filtration of diesel particulates and in-situ hot regeneration. The manufacturing of a deep bed filtration medium, using such brittle fibers, became possible after a special knitting technique was developed which forms the loops with minimum friction and pretension. Within this structure, the fibers are very little constrained and expose their active surface almost completely. Hence, high filtration efficiencies in the range of 95% could be demonstrated with favorable back-pressure characteristics. Blow-off phenomena were never observed. Endurance testing on engines, with full-flow burner regeneration, proved the high robustness to mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading. This is one of the particular advantages of the new concept.
Technical Paper

The Effect of DI Nozzle Fouling on Fuel Spray Characteristics

The atomisation characteristics of DI diesel engine fuel injection nozzles have been the subject of intensive study over the last decade. Much of this work has been related to clean, single hole nozzles spraying into quiescent air, at either ambient conditions or elevated pressures and temperatures. Experience shows that fuel injector nozzles may foul very rapidly in field service, and that this might have a significant effect on the performance of the engine particularly with regard to emissions. The build up of material on the injector nozzle can be controlled by the addition of suitable fuel additives. This paper describes test procedures developed to assess deposit build up and to indicate the efficacy of keep clean additives. The paper then goes on to describe high speed photographic techniques for studying the fuel spray characteristics of clean and fouled injectors in a firing engine.