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Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
Technical Paper

Particulates Reduction in Diesel Engines Through the Combination of a Particulate Filter and Fuel Additive

Exhaust emissions legislation for diesel engines generally limits only the mass of emitted particulate matter. This limitation reflects the concerns and measurement technology at the time the legislation was drafted. However, evolving diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems offer the potential for reductions in the mass and more importantly, the number of particles emitted from diesel exhausts. Particulate filters require frequent cleaning or regeneration of accumulated soot, if the engine is to continue to operate satisfactorily. Exothermic reactions during regeneration can lead to severe thermal gradients in the filter system resulting in damage. Fuel additives have been evaluated to show significant reductions in light off temperature which allow frequent small regeneration events to occur, under mild operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using Different Fuel/Additive Combinations

It is probable that diesel fuel quality in Europe will fall as the need to blend conversion components into the diesel pool increases. In particular diesel ignition quality and stability could decrease and carbon residue and aromatic content increase. This paper discusses the effects of worsening fuel quality on combustion, injection characteristics and emissions and the efficacy of appropriate additives in overcoming these effects. Both direct injection and indirect injection engines were used in the investigations.
Journal Article

Possible Mechanism for Poor Diesel Fuel Lubricity in the Field

Traditionally, diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) has frequently relied on the diesel fuel to lubricate the moving parts. When ultra low sulphur diesel fuel was first introduced into some European markets in the early 1980's it rapidly became apparent that the process of removing the sulphur also removed other components that had bestowed the lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Diesel fuel pump failures became prevalent. The fuel additive industry responded quickly and diesel fuel lubricity additives were introduced to the market. The fuel, additive and FIE industries expended much time and effort to develop test methods and standards to try and ensure this problem was not repeated. Despite this, there have recently been reports of fuel reaching the end user with lubricating performance below the accepted standards.
Technical Paper

A Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for Use with a Diesel Particulate Filter

A novel dosing system for fuel borne catalyst (FBC), used to assist regeneration with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), has been developed. The system was designed for on-board vehicle use to overcome problems encountered with batch dosing systems. Important design features were simplicity, to minimise system cost, and the use of in-line dosing rather than batch dosing linked to tank refuelling. The paper describes the development of the dosing system which continuously doses FBC into the fuel line feeding the engine injection pump. The theoretical considerations behind the concept are explored, together with the realities imposed by fuelling regimes in which a variable proportion of the fuel flowing through the injection pump is passed back to the fuel tank. Two types of system are considered, ie where 1) FBC is added to the fuel in direct proportion to the flow rate of fuel and 2) FBC is added at a constant time-based rate.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of the Benefits of DPF/FBC Systems on London Black Cabs

Future emissions limits are pushing vehicle manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a delay before the full benefit of these measures are fully realised. To overcome this problem, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been, and may be introduced. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. In some countries including the UK there are also fiscal incentives to fit DPFs. Due to its duty cycle the London taxi or Black Cab is one of the more challenging areas of application for the DPF. Previous work has shown that the use of a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can extend the operating range of DPF systems providing the possibility of a viable system for such applications.
Technical Paper

A Method for Assessing the Low Temperature Regeneration Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel-borne Catalysts

Fuel-borne catalysts are now an accepted means of aiding the self-regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). In the past it has been possible to assess the effect of these fuel additives by investigating the temperature at which the filter reaches a pressure drop equilibrium. Under these temperature conditions, the particulate matter is oxidised at the same rate as it is being deposited and there is thus no change in pressure drop across the filter. This technique adequately demonstrates the oxidation temperature of the carbon in the presence of the catalyst. However, it is now well known that such fuel additives also influence the low temperature oxidation of particulate bound hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is not detected by the filter equilibrium technique.
Technical Paper

The Long Distance Road Trial of a Combined Diesel Particulate Filter and Fuel Additive

Trapping diesel particulates is effective in reducing both the number and the mass of fine particulate emissions from diesel engines, but unless the accumulated soot can be burned out or regenerated periodically, the vehicle to which the trap is fitted will cease to function after a relatively short time. A programme of work with soot traps using a low treat rate iron-strontium organo-metallic fuel additive to assist and secure regeneration has been carried out. As part of this programme, an advanced specification diesel engine passenger car equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), was operated on roads in the UK for approximately 18 months, during which time the vehicle covered over 50,000 km After completion of 50,000 km on roads, the vehicle was operated on a chassis dynamometer to increase the distance covered with a DPF more rapidly to a final total of 80,000 km.
Journal Article

Effect of Multifunctional Fuel Additive Package on Fuel Injector Deposit, Combustion and Emissions using Pure Rape Seed Oil for a DI Diesel

This work investigates the effect of a multifunctional diesel fuel additive package used with RapeSeed Oil (RSO) as a fuel in a DI heavy duty diesel engine. The effects on fuel injectors’ cleanliness were assessed. The aim was to maintain combustion performance and preventing the deterioration of exhaust emissions associated with injector deposit build up. Two scenarios were investigated: the effect of deposit clean-up by a high dose of the additive package; and the effect of deposit prevention using a moderate dose of the additive package. Engine combustion performance and emissions were compared for each case against use of RSO without any additive. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, fitted with an oxidation catalyst and meeting the Euro II emissions limits. The tests were conducted under steady state conditions of 23kW and 47kW power output at an engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting of Diesel Particulate Filters - Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Dioxide

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a crucial weapon in the fight to control the downsides traditionally associated with diesel engined vehicles. The DPF not only produces the benefits required from an environmental standpoint but also has the consumer benefit of eliminating the visible black smoke associated with diesel engines. Thus DPFs have now become a reality, both for series production vehicles and as a retrofit application. Inevitably there are a number of alternative types of DPF and alternative techniques are used for ensuring they continue to function in an acceptable manner. Due to the complexity of the diesel combustion process and the emissions produced it is only to be expected that a device intended primarily to control one parameter would have some effect on other parameters. This paper looks at some different DPF technologies and how they effect emissions, with the emphasis on particulate emissions and the speciation of oxides of nitrogen.

Automotive Fuels Reference Book, Third Edition

The first two editions of this title, published by SAE International in 1990 and 1995, have been best-selling definitive references for those needing technical information about automotive fuels. This long-awaited new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, yet retains the original fundamental fuels information that readers find so useful. This book is written for those with an interest in or a need to understand automotive fuels. Because automotive fuels can no longer be developed in isolation from the engines that will convert the fuel into the power necessary to drive our automobiles, knowledge of automotive fuels will also be essential to those working with automotive engines. Small quantities of fuel additives increasingly play an important role in bridging the gap that often exists between fuel that can easily be produced and fuel that is needed by the ever-more sophisticated automotive engine.