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Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load Ethanol Dual-Fuel Combustion using Single and Split Diesel Injections on a Heavy-Duty Engine

The use of two different fuels to control the in-cylinder charge reactivity of compression ignition engines has been shown as an effective way to achieve low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The port fuel injection of ethanol on a common rail, direct injected diesel engine increases this reactivity gradient. The objective of this study is to experimentally characterize the controllability, performance, and emissions of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion in a single cylinder heavy-duty engine. Three different diesel injection strategies were investigated: a late split, an early split, and an early single injection. The experiments were performed at low load, where the fuel conversion efficiency is typically reduced due to incomplete combustion. Ethanol substitution ratios varied from 44-80% on an energy input basis.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Potential of Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas/Diesel Engine

Natural Gas (NG) is currently a cost effective substitute for diesel fuel in the Heavy-Duty (HD) diesel transportation sector. Dual-Fuel engines substitute NG in place of diesel for decreased NOx and soot emissions, but suffer from high engine-out methane (CH4) emissions. Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion (PDFC) is one method of decreasing methane emissions and simultaneously improving engine efficiency while maintaining low NOx and soot levels. PDFC utilizes an early diesel injection to adjust the flammability of the premixed charge, promoting more uniform burning of methane. Engine experiments were carried out using a NG and diesel HD single cylinder research engine. Key speeds and loads were explored in order to determine where PDFC is effective at reducing engine-out methane emissions over Conventional Dual-Fuel which uses a single diesel injection for ignition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Cost Effective Air Hybrid Concept

The air hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, stores it in an air tank in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to propel a vehicle during cruising and acceleration. Capturing, storing and reusing this braking energy to give additional power can therefore improve fuel economy, particularly in cities and urban areas where the traffic conditions involve many stops and starts. In order to reuse the residual kinetic energy, the vehicle operation consists of 3 basic modes, i.e. Compression Mode (CM), Expander Mode (EM) and normal firing mode. Unlike previous works, a low cost air hybrid engine has been proposed and studied. The hybrid engine operation can be realised by means of production technologies, such as VVT and valve deactivation. In this work, systematic investigation has been carried out on the performance of the hybrid engine concept through detailed gas dynamic modelling using Ricardo WAVE software.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tumble and Swirl Motions in a Four-Valve SI Engine

Tumble and swirl motions in the cylinder of a four-valve SI engine with production type cylinder head were investigated using a cross-correlation digital Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Tumble motion was measured on the vertical symmetric plane of the combustion chamber. Swirl motion was measured on a plane parallel to the piston crown with one of intake ports blocked. Large-scale flow behaviours and their cyclic variations were analysed from the measured two-dimensional velocity data. Results show that swirl motion is generated at the end of the intake stroke and persists to the end of the compression stroke. Tumble vortex is produced in the early stage of the compression stroke and distorted in the late stage of the stroke. The cyclic variation of swirl motion is noticeable. The cyclic variation in tumble dominated flow field is much greater.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gaseous and PM Emissions of 4-Stroke CAI/HCCI and SI Combustion in a DI Gasoline Engine

Direct injection gasoline engines have the potential for improved fuel economy through principally the engine down-sizing, stratified charge combustion, and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI). However, due to the limited time available for complete fuel evaporation and the mixing of fuel and air mixture, locally fuel rich mixture or even liquid fuel can be present during the combustion process of a direct injection gasoline engine. This can result in significant increase in UHC, CO and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from direct injection gasoline engines which are of major concerns because of the environmental and health implications. In order to investigate and develop a more efficient DI gasoline engine, a camless single cylinder DI gasoline engine has been developed. Fully flexible electro-hydraulically controlled valve train was used to achieve spark ignition (SI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion in both 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part I: Principles

The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and can readily be implemented at a modest cost for the measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the cylinders of diesel engines. With appropriate modification, this method can be applied to other continuous and intermittent combustion systems, such as those for gas turbine and boiler burners. This paper outlines the theoretical basis of the method, with particular attention being paid to the assumptions relating to the evaluation of the flame temperature and soot concentration. A companion paper deals with the practical problems involved in constructing a working system, including suitable calibration techniques, and assessment of the method accuracy.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part 2: Implementation

The measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a running diesel engine can provide useful information relating to the formation of two important exhaust pollutants, NOx and particulates. The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and it can provide estimates of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration. The theoretical basis of the method is outlined in a companion paper. This paper deals with the practical problems involved in the construction of a working system, including suitable calibration techniques. The accuracy of the measurements of flame temperature and soot concentration is also discussed using results from a various sources.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.