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Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0094
Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Technical Paper

Bridging the Gap between HCCI and SI: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1179
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has received much attention in recent years due to its ability to reduce both fuel consumption and NO emissions compared to normal spark-ignited (SI) combustion. However, due to the limited operating range of HCCI, production feasible engines will need to employ a combination of combustion strategies, such as stoichiometric SI combustion at high loads and leaner burn spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) and HCCI at intermediate and low loads. The goal of this study was to extend the high load limit of HCCI into the SACI region while maintaining a stoichiometric equivalence ratio. Experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with fully flexible valve actuation. In-cylinder pressure rise rates and combustion stability were controlled using cooled external EGR, spark assist, and negative valve overlap. Several engine loads within the SACI regime were investigated.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Conversion of Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter from Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1186
Premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines simultaneously reduces soot and NOx at the expense of increased hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions. The use of biodiesel in the LTC regime has been shown to produce lower HC emissions than petroleum diesel; however, unburned methyl esters from biodiesel are more susceptible to particulate matter (PM) formation following atmospheric dilution due to their low volatility. In this study, the efficacy of a production-type diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for the conversion of light hydrocarbons species and heavier, semi-volatile species like those in unburned fuel is examined. Experimental data were taken from a high speed direct-injection diesel engine operating in a mid-load, late injection partially premixed LTC mode on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and neat soy-based biodiesel (B100). Gaseous emissions were recorded using a conventional suite of analyzers and individual light HCs were measured using an FT-IR analyzer.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Thin Ceramic Coatings on Spark-Ignition Engine Performance

1990-04-01
900903
An experimental study of the effects of thin ceramic thermal barrier coatings on the performance of a spark-ignited gasoline engine was conducted. A modified 2.5 liter GM engine with ceramic-coated pistons, liners, head, valves and ports was used. Experimental results obtained from the ceramic engine were compared with baseline metal engine data. It was shown that at low-speed part-load conditions encountered in typical driving cycles the ceramic engine could achieve up to 18% higher brake power and up to 10% lower specific fuel consumption. At wide open throttle conditions, the two engines exhibited similar characteristics, except at high speeds where the metal engine showed better performance at the expense of inferior fuel economy. The ceramic coating did not produce any observable knock in the engine and showed no significant wear at the conclusion of the testing phase.
Technical Paper

Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In

2006-04-03
2006-01-1151
This study investigates the impact of transient engine operation on the emissions formed during a tip-in procedure. A medium-duty production V-8 diesel engine is used to conduct experiments in which the rate of pedal position change is varied. Highly-dynamic emissions instrumentation is implemented to provide real-time measurement of NOx and particulate. Engine subsystems are analyzed to understand their role in emissions formation. As the rate of pedal position change increases, the emissions of NOx and particulates are affected dramatically. An instantaneous load increase was found to produce peak NOx values 1.8 times higher and peak particulate concentrations an order of magnitude above levels corresponding to a five-second ramp-up. The results provide insight into relationship between driver aggressiveness and diesel emissions applicable to development of drive-by-wire systems. In addition, they provide direct guidance for devising low-emission strategies for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1087
Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) System for the HMMWV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0442
The development and use of a simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) for a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is presented here. While the primary purpose of an ISA is to provide electric power for additional accessories, it can also be utilized for mild hybridization of the powertrain. In order to explore ISA's potential for improving HMMWV's fuel economy, an ISA model capable of both producing and absorbing mechanical power has been developed in Simulink. Based on the driver's power request and the State of Charge of the battery (SOC), the power management algorithm determines whether the ISA should contribute power to, or absorb power from the crankshaft. The system is also capable of capturing some of the braking energy and using it to charge the battery. The ISA model and the power management algorithm have been integrated in the Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM), a SIMULINK-based vehicle model previously developed at the University of Michigan.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Comprehensive CFD Model of Diesel Spray Atomization Accounting for High Weber Numbers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1546
Modern diesel engines operate under injection pressures varying from 30 to 200 MPa and employ combinations of very early and conventional injection timings to achieve partially homogeneous mixtures. The variety of injection and cylinder pressures results in droplet atomization under a wide range of Weber numbers. The high injection velocities lead to fast jet disintegration and secondary droplet atomization under shear and catastrophic breakup mechanisms. The primary atomization of the liquid jet is modeled considering the effects of both infinitesimal wave growth on the jet surface and jet turbulence. Modeling of the secondary atomization is based on a combination of a drop fragmentation analysis and a boundary layer stripping mechanism of the resulting fragments for high Weber numbers. The drop fragmentation process is predicted from instability considerations on the surface of the liquid drop.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Calibration for Individual Driving Styles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1367
Increasing functionality of electronic control units has enhanced our ability to control engine operation utilizing calibration static maps that provide the values of several controllable variables. State-of-the-art simulation-based calibration methods permit the development of these maps with respect to extensive steady-state and limited transient operation of particular driving cycles. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those test conditions. An alternative approach was recently implemented that considers the derivation of these maps while the engine is running the vehicle. In this approach, a self-learning controller selects in real time the optimum values of the controllable variables for the sequences of engine operating point transitions, corresponding to the driver's driving style.
Journal Article

Impact of High Sulfur Military JP-8 Fuel on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler Condensate

2008-04-14
2008-01-1081
Low-sulfur “clean” diesel fuel has been mandated in the US and Europe. However, quality of diesel fuel, particularly the sulfur content, varies significantly in other parts of the world. Due to logistical issues in various theaters of operation, the Army is often forced to rely on local fuel supplies, which exposes vehicles to diesel fuel or jet fuel (JP-8) with elevated levels of sulfur. Modern engines typically use cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to meet emissions regulations. Using high-sulfur fuels and cooled EGR elevates problems associated with cooler fouling and corrosion of engine components. Hence, an experimental study has been carried out in a heavy-duty diesel engine running on standard JP-8 fuel and fuel doped with 2870 ppm of sulfur. Gas was sampled from the EGR cooler and analyzed using a condensate collection device developed according to a modified ASTM 3226-73T standard. Engine-out emissions were analyzed in parallel.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0668
Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Fuel Spray Wall Interaction Model in KIVA-II

1991-09-01
911787
The original spray model in the KIVA-II code includes sub-models for drop injection, breakup, coalescence, and evaporation. Despite the sophisticated structure of the model, predicted spray behavior is not in satisfactory agreement with experimental results. Some of the discrepancies are attributed to the lack of a fuel jet wall impingement sub-model, a wall fuel layer evaporation sub-model, and uncertainties related to the choice of submodels parameters. A spray impingement model based on earlier research has been modified and implemented in KIVA-II. Heat transfer between the fuel layer on the piston surface and the neighboring gaseous charge has also been modelled based on the Colburn Analogy. A series of two dimensional simulations have been performed for a Caterpillar 1Y540 diesel engine to investigate droplet penetration, impingement, fuel evaporation, and chemical reaction, and the dependence of predictions on certain model parameters.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Spray, Mixing, and Combustion Model Parameters on KIVA-II Predictions

1991-09-01
911785
The combustion process in a diesel engine was simulated using KIVA-II, a multi-dimensional computer code. The original combustion model in KIVA-II is based on chemical kinetics, and thus fails to capture the effects of turbulence on combustion. A mixing-controlled, eddy break-up combustion model was implemented into the code. Realistic diesel fuel data were also compiled. Subsequently, the sensitivity of the code to a number of parameters related to fuel injection, mixing, and combustion was studied. Spray injection parameters were found to have a strong influence on the model's predictions. Higher injection velocity and shorter injection duration result in a higher combustion rate and peak pressure and temperature. The droplet size specified at injection significantly affects the rate of spray penetration and evaporation, and thus the combustion rate. Contrary to expectation, the level of turbulence at the beginning of the calculation did not affect fuel burning rate.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Inlet Port Design in a Uniflow-Scavenged Engine Using a 3-D Turbulent Flow Code

1993-04-01
931181
The finite volume, three-dimensional, turbulent flow code ARIS-3D is applied to the study of the complex flow field through the inlet port and within the cylinder of a uniflow-scavenged engine. The multiblock domain decomposition technique is used to accommodate this complex geometry. In this technique, the domain is decomposed into two blocks, one block being the cylinder and the other being the inlet duct. The effects of inlet duct length, geometric port swirl angle, and number of ports on swirl generating capability are explored. Trade-offs between swirl level and inherent pressure drop can thus be identified, and inlet port design can be optimized.
Technical Paper

FIND: Framework for Intelligent Design

1993-04-01
931180
A novel framework for intelligent design of engine systems is introduced. Existing models of engine components and processes are integrated into a multi-purpose, flexible configuration framework. Fundamental thermodynamic elements, including zero-dimensional control volumes, one-dimensional pulsating fluid lines, and continuous flow machines are identified as the constituting components of engine systems. Models of the behavior of these elements, with various degrees of thermodynamic resolution, have been implemented into the framework. The task of the engine designer is, thus, reduced into selecting appropriate thermodynamic elements to model his engine system based on his design objectives. The applicability of the present framework to a wide range of simulation problems is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

1996-02-01
960073
A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effect of Elevated Piston Temperature on Combustion Chamber Deposit Growth

1994-03-01
940948
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of elevated piston temperature on deposit growth patterns in a spark-ignition (SI) engine. A series of thermocouple-instrumented, insulated piston designs was developed for controlling and in-situ monitoring of deposit growth on the piston surface. Upon stabilization of deposit growth, a physical and chemical analysis of deposits from different locations was conducted. It was shown that localized deposit growth correlated strongly with rates of change of temperature at the same locations. At the end of an accelerated 18-hour test schedule using a premium unleaded fuel without reformer bottoms, a 4 μm reduction in average deposit thickness was achieved by elevating the piston surface temperature from 215 °C to 264 °C. No measurable deposit growth was obtained when operating with a critical wall surface temperature of 320 °C and the base unleaded fuel.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970067
A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Location of Knock Initiation on Heat Flux Into an SI Combustion Chamber

1997-10-01
972935
A study has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of the location of knock initiation on heat flux in a Spark-Ignition (SI) combustion chamber. Heat flux measurements were taken on the piston and cylinder head under different knock intensity levels, induced by advancing the spark timing. Tests were performed with two engine configurations, the first with the spark-plug located on the rear side of the chamber and the other having a second non-firing spark-plug placed at the front side of the chamber. The presence of the non-firing spark-plug consistently shifted the location of autoignition initiation from the surface of the piston to its vicinity, without causing a noticeable increase in knock intensity. By localizing the initiation of knock, changes induced in the secondary flame propagation pattern affected both the magnitude and the rate of change of peak heat flux under heavy knock.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Power Benefits of Cetane-Improved Fuels in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

1997-10-01
972900
A program to explore the effects of natural and additive-derived cetane on various aspects of diesel performance and combustion has been carried out. Procedures have been developed to measure diesel engine fuel consumption and power to a high degree of precision. These methods have been used to measure fuel consumption and power in three heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engines. The fuel matrix consisted of three commercial fuels of cetane number (CN) of 40-42, the same fuels raised to CN 48-50 with a cetane improver additive, and three commercial fuels of base CN 47-50. The engines came from three different U.S. manufacturers and were of three different model years and emissions configurations. Both fuel economy and power were found to be significantly higher for the cetane-improved fuels than for the naturally high cetane fuels. These performance advantages derive mainly from the higher volumetric heat content inherent to the cetane-improved fuels.
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