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Technical Paper

Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion With a Sequential Fluid Mechanics-Multizone Chemical Kinetics Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0115
We have developed a methodology for analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engines that applies to conditions in which there is some stratification in the air-fuel distribution inside the cylinder at the time of combustion. The analysis methodology consists of two stages: first, a fluid mechanics code is used to determine temperature and equivalence ratio distributions as a function of crank angle, assuming motored conditions. The distribution information is then used for grouping the mass in the cylinder into a two-dimensional (temperature-equivalence ratio) array of zones. The zone information is then handed on to a detailed chemical kinetics model that calculates combustion, emissions and engine efficiency information. The methodology applies to situations where chemistry and fluid mechanics are weakly linked.
Technical Paper

Optimal Engine Calibration for Individual Driving Styles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1367
Increasing functionality of electronic control units has enhanced our ability to control engine operation utilizing calibration static maps that provide the values of several controllable variables. State-of-the-art simulation-based calibration methods permit the development of these maps with respect to extensive steady-state and limited transient operation of particular driving cycles. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those test conditions. An alternative approach was recently implemented that considers the derivation of these maps while the engine is running the vehicle. In this approach, a self-learning controller selects in real time the optimum values of the controllable variables for the sequences of engine operating point transitions, corresponding to the driver's driving style.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Zone HCCI Combustion Model Accounting for Boundary Layer Effects

2001-03-05
2001-01-1028
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion concept is currently under widespread investigation due to its potential to increase thermal efficiency while greatly decreasing harmful exhaust pollutants. Simulation tools have been developed to explore the implications of initial mixture thermodynamic state on engine performance and emissions. In most cases these modeling efforts have coupled a detailed fuel chemistry mechanism with empirical descriptions of the in-cylinder heat transfer processes. The primary objective of this paper is to present a fundamentally based boundary layer heat transfer model. The two-zone combustion model couples an adiabatic core zone with a boundary layer heat transfer model. The model predicts film coefficient, with approximately the same universal shape and magnitudes as an existing global model.
Technical Paper

Load Limits with Fuel Effects of a Premixed Diesel Combustion Mode

2009-06-15
2009-01-1972
Premixed diesel combustion is intended to supplant conventional combustion in the light to mid load range. This paper demonstrates the operating load limits, limiting criteria, and load-based emissions behavior of a direct-injection, diesel-fueled, premixed combustion mode across a range of test fuels. Testing was conducted on a modern single-cylinder engine fueled with a range of ultra-low sulfur fuels with cetane number ranging from 42 to 53. Operating limits were defined on the basis of emissions, noise, and combustion stability. The emissions behavior and operating limits of the tested premixed combustion mode are independent of fuel cetane number. Combustion stability, along with CO and HC emissions levels, dictate the light load limit. The high load limit is solely dictated by equivalence ratio: high PM, CO, and HC emissions result as overall equivalence ratio approaches stoichiometric.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0175
The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Technical Paper

Influence of Natural Gas Composition on Turbocharged Stoichiometric SI Engine Performance

2012-09-10
2012-01-1647
In certain applications, the use of natural gas can be beneficial when compared to conventional road transportation fuels. Benefits include fuel diversification and CO₂ reduction, allowing future emissions regulations to be met. The use of natural gas in vehicles will also help to prepare the fuel and service infrastructure for future transition to gaseous renewable fuels. The composition of natural gas varies depending on its source, and engine manufacturers must be able to account for these differences. In order to achieve highly fuel flexible engines, the influence of fuel composition on engine properties must first be assessed. This demand is especially important for engines with high power densities. This paper summarizes knowledge acquired from engine dynamometer tests for different compositions of natural gas. Various levels of hydrocarbons and hydrogen in a mixture with methane have been tested at full load and various engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Bridging the Gap between HCCI and SI: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1179
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has received much attention in recent years due to its ability to reduce both fuel consumption and NO emissions compared to normal spark-ignited (SI) combustion. However, due to the limited operating range of HCCI, production feasible engines will need to employ a combination of combustion strategies, such as stoichiometric SI combustion at high loads and leaner burn spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) and HCCI at intermediate and low loads. The goal of this study was to extend the high load limit of HCCI into the SACI region while maintaining a stoichiometric equivalence ratio. Experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with fully flexible valve actuation. In-cylinder pressure rise rates and combustion stability were controlled using cooled external EGR, spark assist, and negative valve overlap. Several engine loads within the SACI regime were investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of an In-Cylinder Heat Transfer Model with Compressibility Effects on Turbulent Prandtl Number, Eddy Viscosity Ratio and Kinematic Viscosity Variation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0702
In-cylinder heat transfer has strong effects on engine performance and emissions and heat transfer modeling is closely related to the physics of the thermal boundary layer, especially the effects of conductivity and Prandtl number inside the thermal boundary layer. Compressibility effects on the thermal boundary layer are important issues in multi-dimensional in-cylinder heat transfer modeling. Nevertheless, the compressibility effects on kinematic viscosity and the variation of turbulent Prandtl number and eddy viscosity ratio have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, an in-cylinder heat transfer model is developed by introducing compressibility effects on turbulent Prandtl number, eddy viscosity ratio and kinematic viscosity variation with a power-law approximation. This new heat transfer model is implemented to a spark-ignition engine with a coherent flamelet turbulent combustion model and the RNG k- turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0668
Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Radial Turbocharger Turbine Characteristics under Real Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0311
The paper deals with investigation of flow characteristics of turbocharger turbine under real operating conditions on engine by means of combination of experimental data and advanced 1-D code for combustion engine simulation. Coupling simulations tools with the results of measurements provides the engineers with data which are difficult or impossible to measure. For instance by means of a three pressure analysis (TPA) applicable on engine cylinder the engineers can obtain burn rate, valve flow and residual gas compound from measured pressure traces in cylinder and at inlet and outlet ports. A method for turbocharger turbine on engine identification similar in principle to the three pressure analysis has been applied on radial turbine with variable geometry. A new computational module has been developed to allow identification of instantaneous flow and efficiency characteristics of the turbine.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0111
This paper discusses the compression ratio influence on maximum load of a Natural Gas HCCI engine. A modified Volvo TD100 truck engine is controlled in a closed-loop fashion by enriching the Natural Gas mixture with Hydrogen. The first section of the paper illustrates and discusses the potential of using hydrogen enrichment of natural gas to control combustion timing. Cylinder pressure is used as the feedback and the 50 percent burn angle is the controlled parameter. Full-cycle simulation is compared to some of the experimental data and then used to enhance some of the experimental observations dealing with ignition timing, thermal boundary conditions, emissions and how they affect engine stability and performance. High load issues common to HCCI are discussed in light of the inherent performance and emissions tradeoff and the disappearance of feasible operating space at high engine loads.
Technical Paper

Design Under Uncertainty and Assessment of Performance Reliability of a Dual-Use Medium Truck with Hydraulic-Hybrid Powertrain and Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-1396
Medium trucks constitute a large market segment of the commercial transportation sector, and are also used widely for military tactical operations. Recent technological advances in hybrid powertrains and fuel cell auxiliary power units have enabled design alternatives that can improve fuel economy and reduce emissions dramatically. However, deterministic design optimization of these configurations may yield designs that are optimal with respect to performance but raise concerns regarding the reliability of achieving that performance over lifetime. In this article we identify and quantify uncertainties due to modeling approximations or incomplete information. We then model their propagation using Monte Carlo simulation and perform sensitivity analysis to isolate statistically significant uncertainties. Finally, we formulate and solve a series of reliability-based optimization problems and quantify tradeoffs between optimality and reliability.
Technical Paper

Dual-Use Engine Calibration:

2005-04-11
2005-01-1549
Modern diesel engines manufactured for commercial vehicles are calibrated to meet EPA emissions regulations. Many of the technologies and strategies typically incorporated to meet emissions targets compromise engine performance and efficiency. When used in military applications, however, engine performance and efficiency are of utmost importance in combat conditions or in remote locations where fuel supplies are scarce. This motivates the study of the potential to utilize the flexibility of emissions-reduction technologies toward optimizing engine performance while still keeping the emissions within tolerable limits. The study was conducted on a modern medium-duty International V-8 diesel engine with variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The performance-emissions tradeoffs were explored using design of experiments and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-1648
Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

2005-05-11
2005-01-2092
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In

2006-04-03
2006-01-1151
This study investigates the impact of transient engine operation on the emissions formed during a tip-in procedure. A medium-duty production V-8 diesel engine is used to conduct experiments in which the rate of pedal position change is varied. Highly-dynamic emissions instrumentation is implemented to provide real-time measurement of NOx and particulate. Engine subsystems are analyzed to understand their role in emissions formation. As the rate of pedal position change increases, the emissions of NOx and particulates are affected dramatically. An instantaneous load increase was found to produce peak NOx values 1.8 times higher and peak particulate concentrations an order of magnitude above levels corresponding to a five-second ramp-up. The results provide insight into relationship between driver aggressiveness and diesel emissions applicable to development of drive-by-wire systems. In addition, they provide direct guidance for devising low-emission strategies for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1087
Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Technical Paper

The Development of Throttled and Unthrottled PCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0202
Present-day implementations of premixed compression ignition low temperature (PCI) combustion in diesel engines use higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) than conventional diesel combustion. Two common devices that can be used to achieve high levels of EGR are an intake throttle and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). Because the two techniques affect the engine air system in different ways, local combustion conditions differ between the two in spite of, in some cases, having similar burn patterns in the form of heat release. The following study has developed from this and other observations; observations which necessitate a deeper understanding of emissions formation within the PCI combustion regime. This paper explains, through the use of fundamental phenomenological observations, differences in ignition delay and emission indices of particulate matter (EI-PM) and nitric oxides (EI-NOx) from PCI combustion attained via the two different techniques to flow EGR.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Light-Off Behavior and Species-Resolved Conversion Efficiencies During In-Situ Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Degreening

2006-04-03
2006-01-0209
Degreening is crucial in obtaining a stable catalyst prior to assessing its performance characteristics. This paper characterizes the light-off behavior and conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the degreening process. A platinum DOC is degreened for 16 hours in the presence of actual diesel engine exhaust at 650°C and 10% water (H2O) concentration. The DOC's activity for carbon monoxide (CO) and for total hydrocarbons (THC) conversion is checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 hours of degreening. Pre-and post-catalyst hydrocarbon species are analyzed via gas chromatography at 0, 4, 8, and 16 hours of degreening. It is found that both light-off temperature and species-resolved conversion efficiencies change rapidly during the first 8 hours of degreening and then stabilize to a large degree. T50, the temperature where the catalyst is 50% active towards a particular species, increases by 14°C for CO and by 11°C for THC through the degreening process.
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