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Technical Paper

High Speed Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion for High Power Output

2014-04-01
2014-01-1320
In recent years society's demand and interest in clean and efficient internal combustion engines has grown significantly. Several ideas have been proposed and tested to meet this demand. In particular, dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated high thermal efficiency, and low engine-out NOx, and soot emissions. Unlike homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, which solely relies on the chemical kinetics of the fuel for ignition control, RCCI combustion has proven to provide superior combustion controllability while retaining the known benefits of low emissions and high thermal efficiency of HCCI combustion. However, in order for RCCI combustion to be adopted as a high efficiency and low engine-out emission solution, it is important to achieve high-power operation that is comparable to conventional diesel combustion (CDC).
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOX Emissions by Means of the HCPC Concept: Complying with the Heavy Duty EURO 6 Limits without Aftertreatment System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0093
Due to concerns regarding pollutant and CO2 emissions, advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency have been widely investigated. The main characteristic of the new combustion strategies, such as HCCI and LTC, is that the formation of a homogenous mixture or a controllable stratified mixture is required prior to ignition. The major issue with these approaches is the lack of a direct method for the control of ignition timing and combustion rate, which can be only indirectly controlled using high EGR rates and/or lean mixtures. Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) is based on the split-cycle principle. Intake and compression phases are performed in a reciprocating external compressor, which drives the air into the combustor cylinder during the combustion process, through a transfer duct. A transfer valve is positioned between the compressor cylinder and the transfer duct.
Journal Article

Transient RCCI Operation in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0050
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that utilizes in-cylinder fuel blending to produce low NOx and PM emissions, while maintaining high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI steady-state performance studies provided a fundamental understanding of the RCCI combustion process in steady-state, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine tests. The current study investigates RCCI and conventional diesel combustion (CDC) operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine over transient operating conditions. In this study, a high-bandwidth, transient-capable engine test cell was used and multi-cylinder engine RCCI combustion is compared to CDC over a step load change from 1 to 4 bar BMEP at 1,500 rev/min. The engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for the RCCI tests and used the same ULSD for the CDC tests.
Technical Paper

Particle Size and Number Emissions from RCCI with Direct Injections of Two Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1661
Many concepts of premixed diesel combustion at reduced temperatures have been investigated over the last decade as a means to simultaneously decrease engine-out particle and oxide of nitrogen (NO ) emissions. To overcome the trade-off between simultaneously low particle and NO emissions versus high "diesel-like" combustion efficiency, a new dual-fuel technique called Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been researched. In the present study, particle size distributions were measured from RCCI for four gasoline:diesel compositions from 65%:35% to 84%:16%, respectively. Previously, fuel blending (reactivity control) had been carried out by a port fuel injection of the higher volatility fuel and a direct in-cylinder injection of the lower volatility fuel. With a recent mechanical upgrade, it was possible to perform injections of both fuels directly into the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Effect of Cetane Improvers on Gasoline, Ethanol, and Methanol Reactivity and the Implications for RCCI Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1678
The focus of the present study was to characterize the fuel reactivity of high octane number fuels (i.e., low fuel reactivity), namely gasoline, ethanol, and methanol when mixed with cetane improvers under lean, premixed combustion conditions. Two commercially available cetane improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate and di-tert-butyl peroxide, were used in the study. First, blends of the primary reference fuels iso-octane and n-heptane were port injected under fixed operating conditions. The resulting combustion phasings were used to generate effective PRF number maps. Then, blends of the aforementioned base fuels and cetane improvers were tested under the same lean premixed conditions as the PRF blends. Based on the combustion phasing results of the base fuel and cetane improver mixture, the effective PRF number, or octane number, could be determined.
Technical Paper

Study of In-Cylinder Combustion and Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Compression Ignition Engine Performance Using Different RON Fuels at Light Load Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0900
The effects of different Research Octane Number [RON] fuels on a multi-cylinder light-duty compression ignition [CI] engine were investigated at light load conditions. Experiments were conducted on a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine at Argonne National Laboratory, using two different fuels, i.e., 75 RON and 93 RON. Emphasis was placed on 5 bar BMEP load, 2000 rev/min engine operation using two different RON fuels, and 2 bar BMEP load operating at 1500 rev/min using 75 RON gasoline fuel. The experiments reveal difficulty in controlling combustion at low load points using the higher RON fuel. In order to explain the experimental trends, simulations were carried out using the KIVA3V-Chemkin Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] Code. The numerical results were validated with the experimental results and provided insights about the engine combustion characteristics at different speeds and low load conditions using different fuels.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions performance of Multizone Stratified Compression Ignition Using Different Octane Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0263
Advanced combustion systems that simultaneously address PM and NOx while retaining the high efficiency of modern diesel engines, are being developed around the globe. One of the most difficult problems in the area of advanced combustion technology development is the control of combustion initiation and retaining power density. During the past several years, significant progress has been accomplished in reducing emissions of NOx and PM through strategies such as LTC/HCCI/PCCI/PPCI and other advanced combustion processes; however control of ignition and improving power density has suffered to some degree - advanced combustion engines tend to be limited to the 10 bar BMEP range and under. Experimental investigations have been carried out on a light-duty DI multi-cylinder diesel automotive engine. The engine is operated in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode using 93 RON (Research Octane Number) and 74 RON fuel.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Mapping of RCCI in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0289
In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Varying the premixed gasoline fraction changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This added control over the combustion process has been shown to allow rapid engine operating point exploration without direct modeling guidance.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Surrogate Diesel Fuel Models for Low Temperature Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1092
Diesel fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbons. Since modeling their combustion characteristics with the inclusion of all hydrocarbon species is not feasible, a hybrid surrogate model approach is used in the present work to represent the physical and chemical properties of three different diesel fuels by using up to 13 and 4 separate hydrocarbon species, respectively. The surrogates are arrived at by matching their distillation profiles and important properties with the real fuel, while the chemistry surrogates are arrived at by using a Group Chemistry Representation (GCR) method wherein the hydrocarbon species in the physical property surrogates are grouped based on their chemical classes, and the chemistry of each class is represented by using up to two hydrocarbon species.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Combustion Model for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1099
A comprehensive biodiesel combustion model is presented for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations. The model incorporates realistic physical properties in a vaporization model developed for multi-component fuel sprays and applies an improved mechanism for biodiesel combustion chemistry. Previously, a detailed mechanism for methyl decanoate and methyl-9-decenoate was reduced from 3299 species to 85 species to represent the components of biodiesel fuel. In this work, a second reduction was performed to further reduce the mechanism to 69 species. Steady and unsteady spray simulations confirmed that the model adequately reproduced liquid penetration observed in biodiesel spray experiments. Additionally, the new model was able to capture expected fuel composition effects with low-volatility components and fuel blend sprays penetrating further.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) in a Single-Cylinder Air-Cooled HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0074
An experimental investigation of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion was conducted in a small single-cylinder HSDI diesel generator engine and compared to standard Direct Injection (DI) diesel combustion to assess the validity of this combustion strategy for high efficiency operation and simultaneous NOx and soot emission reduction in cylinder for this type of engine. A Yanmar L70AE engine was modified from its unit injector mechanical fuel system to operate with a more flexible, electrically controlled common rail DI fuel system in order to achieve the high level of injection event control required for RCCI combustion. RCCI combustion was realized using split, early DI diesel fuel and Port Fuel Injected (PFI) gasoline for 25%, 50% and 75% engine loads (~3, 4.3 and 5.5 bar IMEPn). The effects of intake air temperature, DI injection timing and combustion phasing on engine efficiency, emissions and combustion stability were explored.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Combustion CFD Models and Evaluation of the Effects of Model Constants

2012-04-16
2012-01-0134
This paper describes numerical simulations that compare the performance of two combustion CFD models against experimental data, and evaluates the effects of combustion and spray model constants on the predicted combustion and emissions under various operating conditions. The combustion models include a Characteristic Time Combustion (CTC) model and CHEMKIN with reduced chemistry models integrated in the KIVA-3Vr2 CFD code. The diesel spray process was modeled using an updated version of the KH-RT spray model that features a gas jet submodel to help reduce numerical grid dependencies, and the effects of both the spray and combustion model constants on combustion and emissions were evaluated. In addition, the performance of two soot models was compared, namely a two-step soot model, and a more detailed model that considers soot formation from PAH precursors.
Journal Article

Comparison of Quantitative In-Cylinder Equivalence Ratio Measurements with CFD Predictions for a Light Duty Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0143
In a recent experimental study the in-cylinder spatial distribution of mixture equivalence ratio was quantified under non-combusting conditions by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer (toluene). The measurements were made in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, light-duty diesel engine at conditions matched to an early-injection low-temperature combustion mode. A fuel amount corresponding to a low load (3.0 bar indicated mean effective pressure) operating condition was introduced with a single injection at -23.6° ATDC. The data were acquired during the mixture preparation period from near the start of injection (-22.5° ATDC) until the crank angle where the start of high-temperature heat release normally occurs (-5° ATDC). In the present study the measured in-cylinder images are compared with a fully resolved three-dimensional CFD model, namely KIVA3V-RANS simulations.
Journal Article

Heavy-Duty RCCI Operation Using Natural Gas and Diesel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0379
Many recent studies have shown that the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy can achieve high efficiency with low emissions. However, it has also been revealed that RCCI combustion is difficult at high loads due to its premixed nature. To operate at moderate to high loads with gasoline/diesel dual fuel, high amounts of EGR or an ultra low compression ratio have shown to be required. Considering that both of these approaches inherently lower thermodynamic efficiency, in this study natural gas was utilized as a replacement for gasoline as the low-reactivity fuel. Due to the lower reactivity (i.e., higher octane number) of natural gas compared to gasoline, it was hypothesized to be a better fuel for RCCI combustion, in which a large reactivity gradient between the two fuels is beneficial in controlling the maximum pressure rise rate.
Technical Paper

Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Using a Cetane Improver

2012-04-16
2012-01-1110
Premixed compression ignition (PCI) strategies offer the potential for simultaneously low NOx and soot emissions and diesel-like efficiency. However, these strategies are generally confined to low loads due to difficulties controlling the combustion phasing and heat release rate. Recent experiments have demonstrated that dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion can improve PCI combustion control and expand the PCI load range. Previous studies have explored RCCI operation using port-fuel injection (PFI) of gasoline and direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. In this study, experiments are performed using a light-duty, single-cylinder research engine to investigate RCCI combustion using a single fuel with the addition of a cetane improver 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The fuel delivery strategy consists of port-fuel injection of E10 (i.e., 10% ethanol in gasoline) and direct-injection of E10 mixed with 3% EHN.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of a Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled With Low-Octane Gasoline

2012-04-16
2012-01-1336
In automotive industry it has been a challenge to retain diesel-like thermal efficiency while maintaining low emissions. Numerous studies have shown significant progress in achieving low emissions through the introduction of common-rail injection systems, multiple injections and exhaust gas recirculation and by using a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, to achieve adequate premixing. On the other hand, low temperature combustion strategies, like HCCI and PCCI, have also shown promising results in terms of reducing both NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. With the increasing capacity of computers, multi-dimensional CFD engine modeling enables a reasonably good prediction of combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions, which is the motivation behind the present research. The current research effort presents an optimization study of light-duty compression ignition engine performance, while meeting the emission regulation targets.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI Load Limits and Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0383
The present experimental study explores the effects of compression ratio and piston design in a heavy-duty diesel engine operated with Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. In previous studies, RCCI combustion with in-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injections of higher reactivity fuels was demonstrated to permit near-zero levels of NOX and PM emissions in-cylinder, while simultaneously realizing high thermal efficiencies. The present study consists of RCCI experiments at loads from 4 to 17 bar indicated mean effective pressure at engine speeds of 1,300 and 1,700 [rev/min]. The experiments used a modified piston to examine the effect of piston crevice volume, squish geometry, and compression ratio on performance and efficiency.
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