Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Optimization of Injection Rate Shape Using Active Control of Fuel Injection

2004-03-08
2004-01-0530
The effect of injection rate shape on spray evolution and emission characteristics is investigated and a methodology for active control of fuel injection is proposed. Extensive validation of advanced vaporization and primary jet breakup models was performed with experimental data before studying the effects of systematic changes of injection rate shape. Excellent agreement with the experiments was obtained for liquid and vapor penetration lengths, over a broad range of gas densities and temperatures. Also the predicted flame lift-off lengths of reacting diesel fuel sprays were in good agreement with the experiments. After the validation of the models, well-defined rate shapes were used to study the effect of injection rate shape on liquid and vapor penetration, flame lift-off lengths and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Emissions Optimization Using Micro-Genetic Algorithms in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0347
Current automotive diesel engine research is motivated by the need to meet more-and-more strict emission regulations. The major target for future HSDI combustion research and development is to find the most effective ways of reducing the soot particulate and NOx emissions to the levels required by future emission regulations. Recently, a variety of statistical optimization tools have been proposed to optimize engine-operating conditions for emissions reduction. In this study, a micro-genetic algorithm technique, which locates a global optimum via the law of “the survival of the fittest”, was applied to a high-speed, direct-injection, single-cylinder (HSDI) diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered single-injection operation using a common-rail fuel injection system was at 1757 rev/min and 45% load.
Technical Paper

Premixed Diesel Combustion Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0341
Optimizations were performed on a Heavy-Duty diesel engine equipped with a conventional electronic unit injector in order to minimize fuel consumption, and emissions of NOx and particulate matter. A low speed light load case and a high speed light load case were optimized with these considerations in mind. Exhaustive parametric studies were performed in order to find sets of operating conditions that resulted in low emissions and high fuel economy. It was found for the low speed light load case (Mode 2, 25% load and 821 rev/min) that low emissions operating conditions existed at either very early or very late start-of-injection timings and high EGR (PM = 0.018 g/kW-hr, NOx + HC = 1.493 g/kW-hr with SOI = -21 degrees ATDC, 48% EGR; or 0.085 g/kW-hr PM, 1.02 g/kW-hr NOx with SOI = 4 degrees ATDC, 39% EGR).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Split Injection and Swirl on a HSDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Common Rail Injection System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0349
To overcome the trade-off between NOx and particulate emissions for future diesel vehicles and engines it is necessary to seek methods to lower pollutant emissions. The desired simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency for future DI (Direct Injection) diesels is also a difficult challenge due to the combustion modifications that will be required to meet the exhaust emission mandates. This study demonstrates the emission reduction capability of split injections, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), and other parameters on a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system using an RSM (Response Surface Method) optimization method. The optimizations were conducted at 1757 rev/min, 45% load. Six factors were considered for the optimization, namely the EGR rate, SOI (Start of Injection), intake boost pressure, and injection pressure, the percentage of fuel in the first injection, and the dwell between injections.
Technical Paper

Experimental Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Automated Genetic Algorithms

2002-03-04
2002-01-0960
A micro-genetic algorithm (μGA) optimization method was applied to a heavy-duty, direct-injected diesel engine via an automated test bed system. The goal of this application was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of automated optimization experiments. With the genetic algorithm, no user input was required other than the factors of interest and their allowable ranges. This means that once the routine was initiated, it was essentially run undisturbed until a preset objective level was reached or a preset number of generations had been run. The automated μGA was successfully demonstrated at all points of the six-mode transient cycle simulation, excluding idle. To accomplish the automated experiments, an automated testing system was developed around a Caterpillar single-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

CFD Optimization of DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using Variable Intake Valve Actuation with Boost Pressure, EGR and Multiple Injections

2002-03-04
2002-01-0959
A computational optimization study was performed for a direct-injection diesel engine using a recently developed 1-D-KIVA3v-GA (1-Dimensional-KIVA3v-Genetic Algorithm) computer code. The code performs a full engine cycle simulation within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) code. Design fitness is determined using a 1-D (one-dimensional) gas dynamics code for the simulation of the gas exchange process, coupled with the KIVA3v code for three-dimensional simulations of spray, combustion and emissions formation. The 1-D-KIVA3v-GA methodology was used to simultaneously investigate the effect of eight engine input parameters on emissions and performance for four cases, which include cases at 2500 RPM and 1000 RPM, with both simulated at high-load and low-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2001-03-05
2001-01-0547
The recently developed KIVA-GA computer code was used in the current study to optimize the combustion chamber geometry of a heavy -duty diesel truck engine and a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small-bore diesel engine. KIVA-GA performs engine simulations within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness was determined using a modified version of the KIVA-3V code, which calculates the spray, combustion, and emissions formation processes. The measure of design fitness includes NOx, unburned HC, and soot emissions, as well as fuel consumption. The simultaneous minimization of these factors was the ultimate goal. The KIVA-GA methodology was used to optimize the engine performance using nine input variables simultaneously. Three chamber geometry related variables were used along with six other variables, which were thought to have significant interaction with the chamber geometry.
Technical Paper

Effects of Multiple Injections and Flexible Control of Boost and EGR on Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0195
A study of the combined use of split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting was conducted. Statistical optimization of the engine operating parameters was accomplished using a new response surface method. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the emissions and fuel consumption capabilities of a state-of-the-art heavy -duty diesel engine when using split injections, EGR, and flexible boosting over a wide range of engine operating conditions. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. Similarly, boost has been shown to be an important parameter to optimize. During the experiments, an instrumented single-cylinder heavy -duty diesel engine was used.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1004
Experimental data is used in conjunction with multi-dimensional modeling in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code to characterize the emissions behavior of a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine. Injection pressure and EGR are varied across a range of typical small-bore diesel operating conditions and the resulting soot-NOx tradeoff is analyzed. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and modeling trends; the HSDI engine shows increasing soot and decreasing NOx with higher EGR and lower injection pressure. The model also indicates that most of the NOx is formed in the region where the bulk of the initial heat release first takes place, both for zero and high EGR cases. The mechanism of NOx reduction with high EGR is shown to be primarily through a decrease in thermal NOx formation rate.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2000-06-19
2000-01-1890
A computational optimization study is performed for a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine using the recently developed KIVA-GA computer code. KIVA-GA performs full cycle engine simulations within the framework of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness is determined using a one-dimensional gas -dynamics code for calculation of the gas exchange process, and a three-dimensional CFD code based on KIVA-3V for spray, combustion and emissions formation. The performance of the present Genetic Algorithm is demonstrated using a test problem with a multi-modal analytic function in which the optimum is known a priori. The KIVA-GA methodology is next used to simultaneously investigate the effects of six engine input parameters on emissions and performance for a high speed, medium load operating point for which baseline experimental validation data is available.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Using A Response Surface Method

2000-06-19
2000-01-1962
A study of statistical optimization of engine operating parameters was conducted. The objective of the study was to develop a strategy to efficiently optimize operating parameters of diesel engines with multiple injection and EGR capabilities. Previous studies have indicated that multiple injections with EGR can provide substantial simultaneous reductions in emissions of particulate and NOx from heavy-duty diesel engines, but careful optimization of the operating parameters is necessary in order to receive the full benefit of these combustion control techniques. The goal of the present study was to optimize the control parameters to reduce emissions and brake specific fuel consumption. An instrumented single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine was used with a prototype mechanically actuated (cam driven) fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Modeling Multiple Injection and EGR Effects on Diesel Engine Emissions

1997-10-01
972864
A modified version of the multi-dimensional KIVA-II code is used to model the effects of multiple injection schemes and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on direct injected diesel engine NOx and soot emissions. The computational results, which also considered double and triple injection schemes and varying EGR amounts, are compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder version of a Caterpillar heavy-duty truck engine. The study is done at high load (75% of peak torque at 1600 rpm) where EGR is known to produce unacceptable increases in soot (particulate). The effect of soot and spray model formulations are considered. This includes a new spray model based on Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities for liquid breakup. A soot oxidation model that accounts for turbulent mixing and kinetic effects were found to give accurate results. The results showed excellent agreement between predicted and measured in-cylinder pressure, and heat release data for the various cases.
Technical Paper

Development of Novel Direct-injection Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Designs Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

1997-05-01
971594
A, three-dimensional CFD code, based on the KIVA code, is used to explore alternatives to conventional DI diesel engine designs for reducing NOx and soot emissions without sacrificing engine performance. The effects of combustion chamber design and fuel spray orientation are investigated using a new proposed GAMMA engine concept, and two new multiple injector combustion system (MICS) designs which utilize multiple injectors to increase gas motion and enhance fuel/air mixing in the combustion chamber. From these computational studies, it is found that both soot and nitrous oxide emissions can be significantly reduced without the need for more conventional emission control strategies such as EGR or ultra high injection pressure. The results suggest that CFD models can be a useful tool not only for understanding combustion and emissions production, but also for investigating new design concepts.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960316
An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Model Development and Experiments

1995-04-01
951200
Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented.
Technical Paper

Reducing Particulate and NOx Using Multiple Injections and EGR in a D.I. Diesel

1995-02-01
950217
An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of EGR and multiple injections on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. EGR is known to be effective at reducing NOx, but at high loads there is usually a large increase in particulate. Recent work has shown that multiple injections are effective at reducing particulate. Thus, it was of interest to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing particulate and NOx with the combined use of EGR and multiple injections. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty truck engine. Tests were done at high load (75% of peak torque at 1600 RPM where EGR has been shown to produce unacceptable increases in particulate emissions. The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of up to four independent injections per cycle.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Diesel Flame Imaging Compared with Numerical Computations

1995-02-01
950455
An image acquisition-and-processing camera system was developed for in-cylinder diagnostics of a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with an electronically-controlled common-rail fuel injection system that allowed both single and split (multiple) injections to be studied. The imaging system uses an endoscope to acquire luminous flame images from the combustion chamber and ensures minimum modification to the engine geometry. The system also includes an optical linkage, an image intensifier, a CID camera, a frame grabber, control circuitry and a computer. Experiments include both single and split injection cases at 90 MPa and 45 MPa injection pressures at 3/4 load and 1600 rev/min with simulated turbocharging. For the single injection at high injection pressure (90 MPa) the results show that the first luminous emissions from the ignition zone occur very close to the injector exit followed by rapid luminous flame spreading.
X