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Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Bio-Diesel in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2773
The world today is facing the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the rate of consumption of Fossil derived fuels is alarming. The use of non-conventional energy sources is to be increased so as to tackle the global climatic changes, environmental pollution and also to lower down the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. The urgent need to replace the petroleum products having harmful emissions has leaded us to the Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a well-known alternative for diesel with an advantage over the later because of its biodegradable, less toxic nature, superior lubricity, better emission characteristics and in a way environment friendly. The present study focuses on the comparative study and analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a light duty diesel engine on blends of Fish oil Biodiesel in Diesel and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Biodiesel in Diesel.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of the Blend of Orange Peel Oil Methyl Ester and Isopropyl Alcohol in CI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2778
Diesel engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. As these engines, are the backbones of contemporary global transportation and accounts a 30% of world's energy consumption, which is second highest after the industrial sector. Therefore, the fossil fuel consumption becomes the prime concern. Following the global energy crisis and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. Currently, biodiesel (BD) has been identified as the most attractive and practical choice to replace fossil fuel as the main source of energy, due to the similarity in the properties with conventional diesel. However, its development and application have been hindered by the high cost of required feedstock. Therefore, in recent years, researchers have been seeking the alternative sources of non-edible oil which are economical.
Technical Paper

Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oil Contaminated with Fine Dust Particles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2334
The economics of operating internal combustion engines in cars, buses and other automotive equipment is heavily affected by friction and wear losses caused by abrasive contaminants. As such, dust is a universal pollutant of lubricating oils. Road dust consists of depositions from vehicular and industrial exhausts, tire and brake wear, dust from paved roads or potholes, and from construction sites. Present research investigates the influence of dust powder of size 5 μm-100 μm as contaminant in SAE 20W-40 lubricant on the relative motion of a plane surface over the other having circular surface in contact. A pin-on-disk setup as per ASTM G99 has been used to conduct the experiments, firstly at increasing rpm keeping constant load of 118 N, and secondly by increasing loads, keeping rpm constant at 1000. The contaminated lubricant has been used to study its influence on friction and wear rate at the interface of pin of 12 mm diameter and disk at track diameter of 98 mm.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Analysis of a CI Engine in Dual Mode with CNG and Karanja Oil Methyl Ester

2014-09-30
2014-01-2327
Rapid depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding an extensive research work to find out the viable alternative fuel for meeting sustainable energy demand without any environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable, sustainable, efficient, cost-effective, convenient and safe. Therefore, researchers has shown interest towards alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcohols, LPG, CNG, Producer gas, biogas in order to substitute conventional fuel i.e. diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, studies have suggested that trans-esterified vegetable oils retain quite similar physico-chemical properties comparable to diesel. Besides having several advantages, its use is restricted due to higher emissions i.e. NOx, CO, HC and deposits due to improper combustion. Hence, there is a need of cleaner fuel for diesel engines for the forthcoming stringent emissions norms and the fossil depletion.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Mahua Oil Biodiesel Blend with Diesel and Diesel Fuel in a Medium Capacity Compression Ignition Employing Urea-SCR with Cu-ZSM5

2014-04-01
2014-01-1499
The present world scenario faces a serious threat from increasing dependence on fossil fuels. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel may be considered as a good substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. In terms of emissions from biodiesel, the cause of concern continues to be the NOx emissions. Therefore, to compliment the functioning of biodiesels, Urea-SCR over Cu-ZSM5 catalyst is an effective option due to its ability to convert NOx into nitrogen and water. There has been increasing concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term. The recent paper focuses on use of two non-edible oils mahua oil and fish oil (processed from waste produced by fish).
Technical Paper

Some Experimental Studies on Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of an Agricultural Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Kusum Oil Methyl Ester and Diesel

2014-04-01
2014-01-1952
Biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oils is of paramount significance in India due to insufficient edible oil production. The present work deals with relatively underutilized non-edible oil “Schleichera oleosa” or “Kusum”. The Kusum biodiesel (KB) was produced using a two stage esterification cum transesterification process as the free fatty acid content of the oil was high. Important physico-chemical properties were evaluated and they were found to conform with corresponding ASTM/EN standards. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trial by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of KB in diesel by volume and were named as KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40 respectively. The results showed that full load brake thermal efficiency was dropped by 3.8% to 17% with increase in KB composition in the test fuel. Diesel (D100) showed the maximum full load brake specific energy consumption followed by KB10, KB20, KB30 and KB40.
Technical Paper

Study on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Techniques for Application in V/STOL Aircrafts

2015-09-15
2015-01-2423
The art and science of thrust vectoring technology has seen a gradual shift towards fluidic thrust vectoring techniques owing to the potential they have to greatly influence the aircraft propulsion systems. The prime motive of developing a fluidic thrust vectoring system has been to reduce the weight of the mechanical thrust vectoring system and to further simplify the configuration. Aircrafts using vectored thrust rely to a lesser extent on aerodynamic control surfaces such as ailerons or elevator to perform various maneuvers and turns than conventional-engine aircrafts and thus have a greater advantage in combat situations. Fluidic thrust vectoring systems manipulate the primary exhaust flow with a secondary air stream which is typically bled from the engine compressor or fan. This causes the compressor operating curve to shift from the optimum condition, allowing the optimization of engine performance. These systems make both pitch and yaw vectoring possible.
Technical Paper

Flow Simulation and Theoretical Investigation on Aerodynamics of NACA-2415 Aerofoil at Low Reynolds Number

2015-09-15
2015-01-2576
The Aerofoil theory along with its design has integrated itself into the vast areas of applications ranging from Automobile, Aeronautical, Wind Turbine, Micro-Vehicles, UAVs applications. In this paper, knowing the intricacy of the airfoil's applications, A MATLAB Code for NACA-2415 Airfoil is developed and a Model with dimensions c=180mm, w=126mm, tmax=27mm is generated. The model is then subjected to Flow Simulation with various input parameters: Reynolds Numbers taken are- (REN-1) 105 and (REN-2) 2×105 [Laminar External Flow], Angles of attack taken are-0°, 4°, 8°, 12°. The pressure and velocity distribution along the airfoil sketch curve are graphed qualitatively, emphasizing on the flow separation leading to the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The various aerodynamics characteristic curves for coefficient of pressure, coefficient of lift and coefficient of drag are plotted against different angle of attacks for REN-1 and REN-2.
Technical Paper

Optimization Techniques to Improve the Efficiency of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1210
At present, vast numbers of problems are triggered due to growing global energy crisis and rising energy costs. Since, on-road vehicles constitute the majority share of transportation; any energy losses in them will have a direct effect on the overall global energy scenario. Most of the energy lost is dissipated from the exhaust, cooling, and lubrication systems, and, most importantly, in the braking system. About 6% of the total energy produced is lost with the airstream in form of heat energy when brakes are applied. Thus, various technological systems need to be developed to conserve energy by minimize energy losses while application of brakes. Regenerative Braking is one such system or an energy recovery mechanism causing the vehicle to decelerate by converting its kinetic energy into another form (usually electricity), which further can be used either immediately or stored until needed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Recent Advancements in the Field of Variable Compression Ratio Engine Technology

2016-04-05
2016-01-0669
The Automobile industry is under great stress due to greenhouse gas emissions and health impacts of pollutants. The rapid decrease of fossil fuels has promoted the development of engine designs having higher fuel economy. At the same time, these designs keep the stringent emission standards in check without sacrificing brake power. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is one such measure. This work reviews the technological advancements in the design of a VCR engine. VCR engines can minimize possible risks of irregular combustion while optimizing Brake specific fuel consumption towards higher power and torque. An increase in fuel economy is seen for VCR naturally aspirated engines when coupled with downsizing. In addition to this, emissions of carbon dioxide decreases due to effective utilization of fuel at high loads. Since the first VCR design, there have been various modifications and improvements in VCR engine design.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intake Runner of a CI Engine for Performance Enhancement and Emission Reductions Due to Variations in Air Flow Pattern within the Runner

2016-04-05
2016-01-1015
Recent scenario of fossil fuel depletion as well as rising emission levels has witnessed an ever aggravating trend for decades. The solution to the problems has been addressed by investments and research in the field of fuels; such as the use of cleaner fuels involving biodiesel, alcohol blends, hydrogen and electric drivelines, as well as improvement in traditional technologies such as variable geometry systems, VVT load control strategies etc. The developments have highlighted the enormous potential present in such systems in terms of maximizing engine efficiency and emission reductions. The present paper aims at designing and implementing an intake runner system for a CI engine capable of providing flexibility with variations in operating conditions. Primarily, the design aims at altering the air flow phenomenon within the primary intake of the engine by inducing swirl in the runner through a secondary runner.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel-Alcohol-Diesel Blends Fuelled in VCR Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2265
The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
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