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Journal Article

Active Suspension: Future Lessons from The Past

Abstract Active suspension was a topic of great research interest near the end of last century. Ultimately broad bandwidth active systems were found to be too expensive in terms of both energy and financial cost. This past work, developing the ultimate vehicle suspension, has relevance for today’s vehicle designers working on more efficient and effective suspension systems for practical vehicles. From a control theorist’s perspective, it provides an interesting case study in the use of “practical” knowledge to allow “better” performance than predicted by theoretically optimal linear controllers. A brief history of active suspension will be introduced. Peter Wright, David Williams, and others at Lotus developed their Lotus modal control concept. In a parallel effort, Dean Karnopp presented the notion of inertial (Skyhook) damping. These concepts will be compared, the combination of these two distinctly different efforts will be discussed, and eventual vehicle results presented.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) Based Model for the Temperature Prediction of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

Abstract Li-ion batteries have been widely applied in the areas of personal electronic devices, stationary energy storage system and electric vehicles due to their high energy/power density, low self-discharge rate and long cycle life etc. For the better designs of both the battery cells and their thermal management systems, various numerical approaches have been proposed to investigate the thermal performance of power batteries. Without the requirement of detailed physical and thermal parameters of batteries, this article proposed a data-driven model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the battery temperature with the inputs of ambient temperature, current and state of charge. Thermal response of a Li-ion battery module was experimentally evaluated under various conditions (i.e. ambient temperature of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C, and current rate of C/2, 1C and 2C) to acquire the necessary data sets for model development and validation.
Journal Article

An Investigation of a Locomotive Structural Crashworthiness Using Finite Element Simulation

Abstract In this article, the crashworthiness of a locomotive is assessed through finite element analysis (FEA). The present investigation is focused on the analysis of a locomotive with driving cab to improve the modeling approach and exploring the intrinsic structural weaknesses to improve its crashworthiness. The analyses are conducted according to the EN 15227 standard, which provide crashworthiness requirements for locomotive structure. The finite element model is validated in terms of acceleration and energy balance by the experimental results. The validated model is further used to assess the crashworthiness behavior at a higher impact speed, that is, 100, 160, and 225 km/hr. It has been noticed that local buckling occurs at different points, which reduces the desired progressive damage behavior in the locomotive. The results indicate that at higher speed, large plastic deformation occurs in the frontal part of the locomotive.
Journal Article

Analysis of Driving Performance Based on Driver Experience and Vehicle Familiarity: A UTDrive/Mobile-UTDrive App Study

Abstract A number of studies have shown that driving an unfamiliar vehicle has the potential to introduce additional risk, especially for novice drivers. However, such studies have generally used statistical methods based on analyzing crash and near-crash data from a range of driver groups, and therefore the evaluation has the potential to be subjective and limited. For a more objective perspective, this study suggests that it would be worthwhile to consider vehicle dynamic signals obtained from the Controller Area Network (CAN-Bus) and smartphones. This study, therefore, is focused on the effect of driver experience and vehicle familiarity for issues in driver modeling and distraction. Here, a group of 20 drivers participated in our experiment, with 13 of them having participated again after a one-year time lapse in order for analysis of their change in driving performance.
Journal Article

Analysis of Regulated Pollutant Emissions and Aftertreatment Efficiency in a GTDi Engine Using Different SOI Strategies

Abstract In order to improve performance and minimize pollutant emissions in gasoline turbocharged direct-injection (GTDi) engines, different injection strategies and technologies are being investigated. The inclusion of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and the variation of the start of injection (SOI) are some of these strategies that can influence the air-to-fuel (AF) mixture formation and consequently in the combustion process and pollutant emissions. This paper presents a complete study of the engine performance, pollutant emissions and aftertreatment efficiency that produces the SOI variation with a fixed EGR rate in a 4-cylinder, turbocharged, gasoline direct-injection engine with 2.0 L displacement. The equipment used in this study are TSI-EEPS for particle measurement and HORIBA MEXA 1230-PM for soot measurement being HORIBA MEXA 7100-DEGR with a heated line selector the system employed for regulated gaseous emission measurement and aftertreatment evaluation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Temperature Swing Thermal Insulation for Performance Improvement of Diesel Engines

Abstract Insulating combustion chamber surfaces with thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provides thermal efficiency improvement when done appropriately. This article reports on insulation heat transfer, engine performance characteristics, and damage modelling of “temperature swing” TBCs. “Temperature swing” insulation refers to the insulation material applied on surfaces of combustion chamber walls that enables selective manipulation of its surface temperature profile over the four strokes of an engine cycle. A combined GT Suite-ANSYS Fluent simulation methodology is developed to investigate the impact of thermal properties and insulation thickness for a variety of TBC materials for its “temperature swing” characteristics. This one-dimensional transient heat conduction analyses and engine cycle simulations are performed using scaled-down thermal properties of yttria-stabilized zirconia.
Journal Article

Application of Multi-Attribute Weighted Gray Target Decision in Automobile Noise Reduction Scheme Evaluation

Abstract In the selection of automobile noise reduction schemes, the lack of comprehensive quantitative index system and objective evaluation method is a serious problem. In this article, the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and gray target decision were used to solve the problem. Firstly, AHP and gray target decision method were introduced respectively in detail. Secondly, three automobile noise reduction schemes were illustrated. Four types of data were selected as the decision indexes, and the weight coefficients of all the decision indexes were calculated using the AHP. Then multi-attribute mixed weighted gray target decision model was established. The optimum scheme was obtained by the calculation of the off-target distance and the sorting of the calculation results. The proposed method can quantify the evaluation process and overcome the disadvantages of the traditional analogy method. The example shows that the method is feasible.
Journal Article

Application of a New Method for Comparing the Overall Energy Consumption of Different Automotive Thermal Management Systems

Abstract This article applies a new method for the evaluation and estimation of real-life energy consumption of two different thermal management systems based on driving behavior in the course of the day. Recent attempts to find energy-efficient thermal management systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have led to using secondary loop systems as an alternative approach for meeting dynamic heating and cooling demands and reducing refrigerant charge. However, the additional layer of thermal resistance, which influences the system’s transient behavior as well as passenger compartment comfort during cool-down or heat-up, makes it difficult to estimate the annual energy consumption. In this article, the overall energy consumption of a conventional and a secondary loop system is compared using a new method for describing actual customers’ driving behavior in the course of the day.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Systems and Their Insertion in the Brazilian Scenario: A Test Track Proposal

Abstract The conception of Automated Driving Systems is expanding fast with the expectation of the whole society and with heavy investments toward research and development. However, the insertion of these vehicles in real scenarios worldwide is still a challenge for governments, once they require an important evolution of the legal and regulatory framework. Although there are several initiatives to accelerate the insertion process, each country has specificities when considering the traffic scenario. In order to contribute to this emerging problem, this article presents a perspective of how the insertion of these vehicles can be performed considering specificities of the Brazilian scenario, one of the world's biggest car markets. Thus, it is discussed the global scenario of autonomous vehicles, the Brazilian traffic system, and the certification and homologation process, focusing on a new test track proposal.
Journal Article

Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

Abstract Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
Journal Article

Automotive Components Fatigue and Durability Testing with Flexible Vibration Testing Table

Abstract Accelerated durability testing of automotive components has become a major interest for the ground vehicle Industries. This approach can predict the life characteristics of the vehicle by testing fatigue failure at higher stress level within a shorter period of time. Current tradition of laboratory testing includes a rigid fixture to mount the component with the shaker table. This approach is not accurate for the durability testing of most vehicle components especially for those parts connected directly with the tire and suspension system. In this work, the effects of the elastic support on modal parameters of the tested structure, such as natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, as well as the estimated structural fatigue life in the durability testing were studied through experimental testing and numerical simulations.
Journal Article

Autonomous Vehicles Scenario Testing Framework and Model of Computation

Abstract Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology has the potential to fundamentally transform the automotive industry, reorient transportation infrastructure, and significantly impact the energy sector. Rapid progress is being made in the core artificial intelligence engines that form the basis of AV technology. However, without a quantum leap in testing and verification, the full capabilities of AV technology will not be realized. Critical issues include finding and testing complex functional scenarios, verifying that sensor and object recognition systems accurately detect the external environment independent of weather conditions, and building a regulatory regime that enables accumulative learning. The significant contribution of this article is to outline a novel methodology for solving these issues by using the Florida Poly AV Verification Framework (FLPolyVF).
Journal Article

Co-Simulation Study of the Split-Crankshaft Engine’s Electromechanical Clutch Unit

Abstract The main objective of active downsizing is to increase the power train efficiency. In order to consistently enhance an approach of active downsizing, it is inevitable to disable and additionally to disengage part of the overall engine displacement volume. The disengagement avoids the friction loss of the piston group as well as its crank- and valve-train section. Therefore, this beneficial approach, the Split-Crankshaft Engine (SCE) is currently under development at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines in cooperation with the Gear Research Centre (FZG), at the Technical University of Munich. The SCE concept consists of two partial internal combustion engines, which are arranged inline. The Primary Engine (PE) is permanently running while the Secondary Engine (SE) can be switched on and off load-dependently during driving operation.
Journal Article

Comparative Performance of 12 Crankcase Oil Mist Separators

Abstract Closed crankcase ventilation (CCV) systems are required in most automotive markets in order to meet emissions regulations. Such systems usually require a separator to recover oil and return it to the sump. Many end users fit improved separators in order to reduce intake/aftercooler contamination with soot/oil. This study measured clean and wet pressure drop and filter capture efficiency in 12 different crankcase oil mist separators which are commonly used for either original equipment (OE) or aftermarket fitment to passenger vehicles and four-wheel drives (≤200 kW). The filters tested spanned three different size/rating classes as well as included both branded and unbranded (imitation) models. In addition to filters, separators (often termed “catch cans”) and an OE cyclone separator were also examined. Testing was performed under controlled laboratory conditions using methods equivalent to previous work and current mist filter test standards.
Journal Article

Comparative Study of Different Air Supply Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

Abstract The dynamic and efficiency of automotive fuel cell drives is significantly influenced by air supply system. Different air compression architectures use electric compressor (EC), electric turbocharger (ETC), or a serial booster (SB) consisting of turbocharger and electric compressor. These three variants of air compression systems were modeled using a map approach and added to a 0D fuel cell air supply model. The characteristic maps of the turbomachinery were measured on the test bench under fuel cell conditions. Subsequently, the calculated isentropic efficiencies were corrected with respect to heat transfer phenomena occurring during the measurement. Moreover, a scaling method for the maps of the turbomachinery is explained. The initial simulation of the air compression systems with equal diameters for the turbomachinery showed no difference in the mechanical power demand.
Journal Article

Comparison Study of Malaysian Driver Seating Position in SAEJ1517 Accommodation Model

Abstract A key element in an ergonomically designed driver’s seat in a car is the correct identification of driver seating position and posture accommodation. Current practice by the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is to utilize the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) J1517 standard practice as a reference. However, it was found that utilizing such guidelines, which were developed based on the American population, did not fit well with the anthropometry and stature of the Malaysian population. This research seeks to address this issue by comparing the SAE J1517 Model against Malaysian preferred driving position. A total of 62 respondents were involved for the driver seating position and accommodation study in the vehicle driver’s seat buck mockup survey and measurements. The results have shown that the Malaysian drivers prefer to sit forward as compared to the SAE J1517 Model and have shorter posture joint angle.
Journal Article

Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Thermoplastics with Bio-Blendstock Fuel Candidates Using Hansen Solubility Analysis

Abstract The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure plastics with 39 bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Fuel types included multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The plastics included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), along with several nylon grades. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels.
Journal Article

Conceptual Design, Material, and Structural Optimization of a Naval Fighter Nose Landing Gear for the Estimated Static Loads

Abstract The Naval Nose Landing Gear (NLG) structural assembly consists of components with complex structural geometry and critical functionalities. The landing gear components are subjected to high static and dynamic loads, so they must be appropriately designed, dimensioned, and made by materials with mechanical characteristics that meet high strength, stiffness, and less weight requirements. This article contributes to the shape, size, and material optimization for the NLG of a supersonic naval aircraft for the estimated static loads. The estimated modal frequency values of the NLG assembly using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software were compared with available Ground Vibration Test data of an aircraft to literally prove the accuracy and suitability of finite element (FE) model that can be used for any further analysis.
Journal Article

Conceptual Investigations on Full Optical Accessibility to Large-Bore Medium-Speed Engines

Abstract Optically accessible engines are an essential tool to investigate the combustion process in internal combustion engines via optical and laser optical methods. These methods can be applied to analyze the mixing formation, injection, combustion, and emission formation in situ for a better understanding of the combustion process. The derived findings result in new potentials for increased efficiency and reduced emissions. While the application for passenger car- and truck-size engines is quite common, the application of such an optically accessible engine is rather rare for large-bore engines driving ships or power plants due to their huge scale. The following sections show a conceptual design study to make a large-bore dual-fuel (DF) engine with a bore of 350 mm and stroke of 440 mm fully optically accessible according to the Bowditch principle.
Journal Article

Conditioning Turbocharger Compressor Map Data for Use in Engine Performance Simulation

Abstract Turbocharger compressor maps are used in engine performance modeling and simulation to predict engine air system operating conditions. Errors in compressor map data can result in inaccurate engine performance prediction. A method is described for conditioning compressor map data for use in engine performance simulation, by detecting and replacing suspect data points, and interpolating and extrapolating the map data. The method first characterizes enthalpy rise through the compressor, after removing data points likely influenced by heat transfer from turbine to compressor, using energy transfer coefficient vs. impeller outlet flow coefficient. This is done concurrently with estimating impeller outlet conditions using simplified geometry assumptions and a modified definition for compressor stage reaction.