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Journal Article

Enhanced Lateral and Roll Stability Study for a Two-Axle Bus via Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension Tuning

Abstract The suspension system has been shown to have significant effects on vehicle performance, including handling, ride, component durability, and even energy efficiency during the design process. In this study, a new roll-plane hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system is proposed to enhance both roll and lateral dynamics of a two-axle bus. The roll-plane stability analysis for the HIS system has been intensively explored in a number of studies, while only few efforts have been made for suspension tuning, especially considering lateral plane stability. This article aims to explore the integrated lateral and roll dynamics by suspension tuning of a two-axle bus equipped with HIS system. A ten-degree-of-freedom (DOF) lumped-mass vehicle model is integrated with either transient mechanical-hydraulic model for HIS or the traditional suspension components, namely, shock absorber and anti-roll bar (ARB).
Journal Article

Enhanced Coil Spring Modeling in Passenger Car Suspension for Improved Target Setting Process

Abstract The problem addressed in this work is how to formulate accurate targets for coil springs in passenger car suspensions to ensure that the required ride height and wheel rate are achieved. The issue arises because suspensions often tend to introduce significant spring deformations other than a purely axial compression. Although these effects are quite common, their influence on suspension performance is still not well understood. To this purpose, a new enhanced spring model is presented. The theory behind the model is explained and the relationship between spring and suspension performance discussed in detail. To validate formulations, a series of numerical simulations has been carried out demonstrating the model accuracy. Finally, a novel approach to spring target setting is proposed based on this advanced spring model.
Journal Article

Energy Consumption Test and Analysis Methodology for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Engine Accessories

Abstract Fuel economy is a crucial parameter in long-haulage heavy-duty vehicles. Researchers tended to focus initially on engine combustion efficiency, while modern researchers turn their attention to the energy consumption of engine accessories in an attempt to enhance fuel economy. The accessories investigated in this study include the cooling fan, water pump, air compressor, power steering pump, air-conditioning (AC) compressor, and generator. Normally, accessory energy consumption analysis is based on rig data and simulation results. Here, we focus on the disparate test environments between the rig and vehicle to establish a novel steady power test method; the proposed method provides accurate accessory power data under different working conditions. A typical highway driving cycle is selected to collect accessory duty-cycle. The heavy-duty vehicle accessories’ energy consumption distribution under highway road conditions is obtained through the repeated road tests.
Journal Article

Empirical Investigation on the Effects of Rolling Resistance and Weight on Fuel Economy of Medium-Duty Trucks

Abstract Vehicle rolling resistance and weight are two of the factors that affect fuel economy. The vehicle tire rolling resistance has a more significant influence than aerodynamics drags on fuel economy at lower vehicle speeds, particularly true for medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Less vehicle weight reduces inertia loads, uphill grade resistance, and rolling resistance. The influence of weight on the fuel economy can be considerable particularly in light- to medium-duty truck classes because the weight makes up a larger portion of gross vehicle weight. This article presents an empirical investigation and a numerical analysis of the influences of rolling resistance and weight on the fuel economy of medium-duty trucks. The experimental tests include various tires and payloads applied on a total of 21vehicle configurations over three road profiles. These tests are used to assess the sensitivity of rolling resistance and weight to the vehicle fuel economy.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

Efficient Component Reductions in a Large-Scale Flexible Multibody Model

Abstract To make better use of simulations in the automotive driveline design process there is a need for both improved predictive capabilities of typical system models and increased number of variant evaluations carried out during system concept design phase. A previously developed large-scale multibody rotor dynamical powertrain model that combines detailed linear-elastic finite element components and nonlinear joints is used to more accurately simulate system response modes and their variations across the operating-range. However, the total simulation time is too long to include extensive parameter evaluations during the rapid design iterations, which will have a negative influence on the total understanding of the designed system's behaviour. Therefore this paper is about reducing such a large-scale model to one that runs faster, but without losing the ability to predict the most fundamental system characteristics.
Journal Article

Driveline Ratio Selection and Shift Map Optimization for Automatic Transmission Vehicle at Concept Phase through Simulations

Abstract Traditionally driveline ratios are selected based on trial and error method of proto vehicle testing. This consumes lot of time and increases overall vehicle development effort. Over last few decades, simulation-based design approach has been extensively used to alleviate this problem. This paper describes torque converter and final drive ratio (FDR) selection at concept phase for new Automatic Transmission (AT) vehicle development. Most of the critical data required for simulating vehicle performance and fuel economy (FE) targets were not available (e.g. shift map, clutch slip map, pedal map, dynamic torque, coast down, etc.) at an initial stage of the project. Hence, the risk for assuming right inputs and properly selecting FDR/Torque converter was particularly high. Therefore, a validated AVL Cruise simulation model based on an existing AT vehicle was used as a base for new AT vehicle development to mitigate the risk due to non-availability of inputs.
Journal Article

Disc Pad Physical Properties vs. Porosity: The Question of Compressibility as an Intrinsic Physical Property

Abstract Disc pad physical properties are believed to be important in controlling brake friction, wear and squeal. Thus these properties are carefully measured during and after manufacturing for quality assurance. For a given formulation, disc pad porosity is reported to affect friction, wear and squeal. This investigation was undertaken to find out how porosity changes affect pad natural frequencies, dynamic modulus, hardness and compressibility for a low-copper formulation and a copper-free formulation, both without underlayer, without scorching and without noise shims. Pad natural frequencies, modulus and hardness all continuously decrease with increasing porosity. When pad compressibility is measured by compressing several times as recommended and practiced, the pad surface hardness is found to increase while pad natural frequencies and modulus remain essentially unchanged.
Journal Article

Development of an Empirical Spring Aid Model for Automotive Applications

Abstract Spring aids are used to provide additional stiffness at the end of bump travel, preventing metal to metal contact. Commonly they are represented by nonlinear stiffness depending on displacement; however the main drawback of this approach is that it does not show any hysteretic behavior, hence they do not produce realistic force predictions differentiating between loading and unloading and energy absorbed is not calculated. Although introducing damping as a function of velocity generates some hysteresis, it does not generate realistic results for quasi-static and dynamic events; and measured data proves that velocity does not have a significant influence in the width of the loop. An empiric model can be build combining nonlinear stiffness and viscous damping, as a function of velocity, and also adding an additional term accounting for structural damping.
Journal Article

Development of Safe and Sustainable EPAS (Electric Power Assist Steering) System for Emerging Markets

Abstract The vehicle attributes developed for emerging markets like India are unique because of different topographical conditions, diversity and culture within the different states. Major attributes in vehicle development process is development of safe and sustainable vehicle systems (steering, brakes etc.) for the driver. India is presently an emerging market for automotive sector. With booming economy, purchasing power of the consumer has gone up in the past few years. Most of young population of India have started buying the cars. At the same time, India’s road infrastructure, vehicle regulations have exalted over the years. The consumer cognizance towards the vehicles have started changing now. They want safer, robust system in their vehicles with new convenience features at affordable cost. In recent years, almost all OEM’s in India have migrated steering systems from HPAS to EPAS for payback on fuel economy and weight.
Journal Article

Determination of Influence of Parameters on Undercarriage Shock Absorber

Abstract The simple oleo pneumatic (shock absorber) model was developed using the available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to understand how various parameters influence the performance of the undercarriage shock absorber. The study is divided into two parts: first part is focused on the influence of orifice geometry and the second part of the study is focused on the other parameters including chamber geometry. Both the studies are carried out using design of experiments (DOE) for the same output characteristics (response). In this study, the impacts on the flow behavior due to the orifice shapes are also studied. The results and the other outcomes are shown in the form of DOE parameters such as main effect plots and interaction plots.
Journal Article

Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Multi-Speed Powertrain for Class-7 Electric Trucks

Abstract The development, analysis, and optimization of battery electric class-7 heavy-duty trucks equipped with multi-speed transmissions are discussed in this paper. The designs of five new traction motors-fractional-slot, concentrated winding machines-are proposed for use in heavy-duty electric trucks. The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined and ranges of gear ratios for three-to six-speed transmission powertrains are calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for class-7 battery electric trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the twenty possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the four driving cycles and the most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are recommended.
Journal Article

Design, Analysis, Simulation and Validation of Automobile Suspension System Using Drive-Shaft as a Suspension Link

Abstract With increasing demands for higher performance along with lower vehicle emissions, lightweight vehicle system construction is key to meet such demands. Suspension and transmission assemblies being the key areas for weight-reduction, we have designed a revolutionary new type of suspension system which combines the suspension links with the powertrain assembly and thus completely eliminates one suspension member. Less weight means lower fuel-consumption with improved passenger-comfort and road-holding due to reduction in unsprung mass. Elimination of a suspension link reduces the overall cost of material, machining & fabrication making our design cost-effective than existing setups. This paper deals with the design and implementation of of our concept. A working prototype is also constructed and tested which completely validates our design.
Journal Article

Design of Adjustable Road Feeling Performance for Steering-by-Wire System

Abstract Since steering-by-wire (SBW) system decouples mechanical linkages between front tires and the steering wheel, the road feeling characteristics of SBW system can be designed flexibly to improve the driving experience. In this article, a road feeling system with adjustable performance is proposed based on integrating the elements of the steering wheel module and the steering actuator module of SBW system. In this system, the road feeling torque consists of a main toque and a tuning torque, which are deduced by parametric method. The main torque is to feed back the tire dynamics and road properties to the driver intuitively, and the tuning torque is designed as a compensation of the main torque to tune the road feeling performance. The parameters in the formula of road feeling torque are selected properly and the driver can get the preferred road feeling performance by tuning these parameters in the formula.
Journal Article

Complete Engine Thermal Model, a Comprehensive Approach

Abstract Upcoming engine generations are characterized by both a general trend of increased specific-power and higher efficiency. This leads to increased thermal loads, compromising reliability, and simultaneously to a limited amount of heat under ordinary engine use. Heat is a valuable resource in providing passenger comfort and emission control. For these reasons the subject of engine thermal management is receiving increasing attention. This work presents a comprehensive study of the complete engine thermal behavior at relevant running conditions: rated-power, peak-torque and ordinary use. The work is further extended to the engine warm-up period. The result is a high-resolution complete engine thermal model, capable of simultaneously reporting the local temperature of any engine part, and the global engine heat balance at any engine load.
Journal Article

Automated Guided Vehicles for Small Manufacturing Enterprises: A Review

Abstract Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVS) are the prominent one in modern material handling systems used in small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) due to their exciting features and benefits. This article pinpoints the need of AGVS in SMEs by describing the material handling selection in SMEs and enlightening recent technological developments and approaches of the AGVS. Additionally, it summarizes the analytical and simulation-based tools utilized in design problems of AGVS along with the influence of material handling management and key hurdles of AGVS. The current study provides a limelight towards making smart automated guided vehicles (AGVs) with the simplified and proper routing system and favorable materials and more importantly reducing the cost and increasing the flexibility.
Journal Article

Assessing Road Load Coefficients of a Semi-Trailer Combination Using a Mechanical Simulation Software with Calibration Corrections

Abstract The study of road loads on trucks plays a major role in assessing the effect of heavy-vehicle design on fuel conservation measures. Coastdown testing with full-scale vehicles in the field offers a good avenue to extract drag components, provided that random instrumentation faults and biased environmental conditions do not introduce errors into the results. However, full-scale coastdown testing is expensive, and environmental biases which are ever-present are difficult to control in the results reduction. Procedures introduced to overcome the shortcomings of full-scale field testing, such as wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), though very reliable, mainly focus on estimating the effects of aerodynamic drag forces to the neglect of other road loads which should be considered.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

Active Suspension: Future Lessons from The Past

Abstract Active suspension was a topic of great research interest near the end of last century. Ultimately broad bandwidth active systems were found to be too expensive in terms of both energy and financial cost. This past work, developing the ultimate vehicle suspension, has relevance for today’s vehicle designers working on more efficient and effective suspension systems for practical vehicles. From a control theorist’s perspective, it provides an interesting case study in the use of “practical” knowledge to allow “better” performance than predicted by theoretically optimal linear controllers. A brief history of active suspension will be introduced. Peter Wright, David Williams, and others at Lotus developed their Lotus modal control concept. In a parallel effort, Dean Karnopp presented the notion of inertial (Skyhook) damping. These concepts will be compared, the combination of these two distinctly different efforts will be discussed, and eventual vehicle results presented.
Journal Article

A Robust Wheel Slip Control Design with Radius Dynamics Observer for EV

Abstract In order to improve the safety and dynamic performance of electric vehicles equipped with four in-wheel electric motors, and prevent the wheels from locking or slipping when braking or accelerating, a new longitudinal control strategy which combines ASR traction and ABS braking control is proposed using an observation algorithm of effective radius for four wheel of electric vehicle. Using the electric motor torques as the unique actuator signal sources, this combined ASR/ABS can act as acceleration slip regulation (ASR) by preventing the wheels from slipping during acceleration and as an antilock braking system (ABS) by preventing the wheels from getting locked during braking. A variation of effective radius of the wheel’s tire can have an incidence on the longitudinal and lateral control.